Dr. Rhonda Patrick Returns | The Tim Ferriss Show (Podcast)

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hello boys and girls this is Tim Ferriss
05:57
and welcome to another episode of the
05:59
Tim Ferriss show where it is my job each
06:01
in every episode to deconstruct
06:02
world-class performers of all different
06:04
types whether from chess athletics
06:06
entertainment military otherwise to
06:08
tease out the habits routines favorite
06:10
books and so on that you can cast and
06:12
apply in your own life this episode is a
06:15
little bit different by popular request
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we have Rhonda Patrick PhD at found my
06:22
fitness on the socials who is an
06:24
American biochemist and scientist now
06:27
whether you want to extend life
06:28
inexpensively buy a stem-cell insurance
06:31
policy you may have read about that in
06:33
tools of titans or guard against cancer
06:35
Rhonda has some very valuable insights
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and experiences as well as
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recommendations
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in this episode she tackles many of your
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most popular requested topics this
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includes many things I’ve talked about
06:47
before that you guys have wanted more
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detail and specifics on best practices
06:52
for fasting for instance what blood
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tests are most important for analyzing
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overall health the minimum effective
06:58
dose for the benefits of sauna and
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different types of heat exposure heat
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versus cold exposure we’ve talked about
07:06
cold baths before how can they be used
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and how should they be used effectively
07:10
the most effective smart drugs no
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tropics thousands of you have asked me
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for this the latest fat loss research
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and much much more a little background
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on Ronda she is known for her studies of
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the mechanistic link between vitamin D
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and serotonin production research that
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may have important implications for the
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understanding of autism and other
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disorders and she also has a very
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popular podcast found Myatt Fitness dr.
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Patrick also conducts clinical trials
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has performed aging research at the Salk
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Institute for Biological studies and did
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graduate research at st. Jude’s
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Children’s Research Hospital which I’ve
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had some involvement with where she
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focused on cancer mitochondrial
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metabolism and apoptosis so I hope you
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enjoy this conversation which is really
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a master class with Ronda Patrick as
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much as I did thanks for listening
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hi guys Rhonda Patrick here happy to be
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here today to get things started let’s
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take an opening question from Tim
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Ferriss Tim asks what new areas
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experiments discoveries or hypotheses
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are you most excited about these days
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thankfully because I put a certain
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percentage of my brain out here on the
08:18
Internet much of what I’m actively
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interested in these days or have been
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interested in is actually lucid ated a
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little bit as necessary context for some
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of the questions I’m going to answer
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here shortly but Tim’s question does
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sort of give a nice opportunity for an
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overview as a rule the things that
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usually get me really revved up are
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ultimately optimizations that we can
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make to our lifestyles that might
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increase our functional health span our
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well-being and lastly cognitive and
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physical performance usually through
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deeper understandings of biology health
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span or healthy functional life span is
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especially of interest to me I sort of
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lead with that
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to me health span is living
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for as long as we can while doing our
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best to prevent deterioration from the
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diseases of aging talking about
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increasing health fun is one thing
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though often achieving it is a different
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thing altogether the reason this is
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tricky is that the most reliable way to
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treat aging is to try to instead prevent
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it a natural extension of that fact
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means that the earlier we start the
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better shot we have of making a large
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cumulative effect over the course of our
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lives now the specifics of how to best
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mitigate the damaging effects of aging
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specifically is subject to a little bit
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of individual variation as a consequence
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of each of our little genetic indio sync
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receives the combination of which are
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unique to each of us this is an area
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that I’m especially interested in and
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that I plan to invest a little bit more
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into intellectually in the coming months
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especially the interface between
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nutrition and genetics known as
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nutrigenomics but the good news is there
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are certain rule of thumb strategies
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that are able to have a positive effect
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on health and possibly even longevity in
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some cases it might mean optimizing our
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diet around inclusion of specific
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nutrients one of the most interesting
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and exciting of which to me right now is
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a compound known as sulforaphane
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spelled sul f o ra pH ane but also other
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related compounds that fall into the
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same class of compounds broadly known as
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Isis IO sign aids all of which including
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sulfur f—ing being derived from
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cruciferous vegetables what’s
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interesting about sulfur cream is that
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this compound richly found in broth is
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frost at about fifty to a hundred times
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what’s found in mature broccoli is that
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it activates a special genetic pathway
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in ourselves known as nrf2 and it does
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so more potently than any other known
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naturally-occurring dietary compound
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this gene a master regulator controls
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over 200 other genes affecting whether
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or not they’re activated and doing work
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these include genes that are affect our
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own anti inflammatory processes
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antioxidant processes and even the
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ability to inactivate potentially
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harmful compounds that were exposed to
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on a daily basis from breeding and
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carcinogens like benzene from air
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pollution in a sense we’re talking about
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an on switch from some of our most
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native stress responses our ability to
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cope with physiological stress down to
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the cellular level ultimately affects
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how rapidly we accumulate the damage
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which we often refer to as aging but and
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here’s the interesting thing
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the reason interrupt
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to a stress response pathway is
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activated by solar vane is because the
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compound itself functions as what we
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know as a Zeno hormetic a compound that
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by virtue of being actually slightly
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stressful to self elicits a biological
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stress response that has a cumulative
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effect that is otherwise a net gain and
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resilience that creates a benefit to the
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organism as a whole this is actually
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somewhat unintuitive if you really think
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about that we sort of had this very
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natural notion that because excess
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stress is bad we should venture to avoid
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stress at all costs it turns out though
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that in fact perhaps as a consequence of
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having received stressful compounds in
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our diets for millions of years things
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that evolved in plants such as insect
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antecedents that help ward off insects
11:50
we sometimes function better for having
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them they can even induce neuro stress
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responses that boost neuro trophic
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factors that lead to the growth of new
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neurons and promote the survival of
11:59
existing neurons which may function to
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help make compounds like sulforaphane
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potentially a candidate as a mild
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nootropic we’ll probably come back to
12:07
this in a little bit but the bottom line
12:09
is is that if we take this same concept
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that stress can be beneficial known as
12:13
hormesis and apply to other things like
12:15
exercise fasting heat stress cold stress
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some of the various benefits that may be
12:20
had from these many strategies
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similarly come about as a consequence of
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sometimes overlapping stress response
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pathways this idea of hormesis and
12:30
trying to improve our capacity to be
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resilient to environmental stress and
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even the stress generated as a byproduct
12:36
of normal metabolism and immune function
12:38
in particular is a very useful framework
12:40
for evaluating the potential strategies
12:42
that might have promise in preventing
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even aging okay all of that said this is
12:46
a great opportunity to jump from these
12:48
sort of big picture ideas back to things
12:50
of a more practical application variety
12:52
specifically the next question evaluates
12:55
a straightforward technique that has
12:56
caught my interest and also happens to
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be broadly applicable to almost anyone
13:00
all right
13:01
so Brandon Beckett asks dr. Rhonda
13:04
Patrick you interviewed dr. Valter Longo
13:06
doctor Sachin panda and dr. Ruth
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Patterson on time restricted feeding and
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fasting can you summarize your best
13:13
practices for time restricted eating and
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who it might not be a good fit for okay
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this is a fun question but before we
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dive right into best practices on time
13:21
research
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eating it probably helps to know what it
13:24
is for the rest of you that may be
13:25
listening time restricted eating as it’s
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called in humans or time restricted
13:29
feeding as it’s referred to an animal
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research is this idea that pit
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constraining our eating within a certain
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time window during the day ranging from
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only 8 hours up to 12 hours per day
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usually earlier in the day to align
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better with our circadian rhythm we
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stand to benefit from a variety of
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different angles on the more extreme end
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of eight hours you’re engaging in a
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slightly more extreme type of time
13:50
restrictive eating which is more well
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known in the fitness world in particular
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as 16-8 intermittent fasting simply
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maintaining a slightly more conservative
13:57
time window than you usually might have
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started to show advantages as well
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potentially functioning as a lifestyle
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intervention that may be able to protect
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people from obesity metabolic related
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disease and more at the population level
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for example even an 11 hour eating
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window has been associated in one study
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with a reduced risk of breast cancer and
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potentially recurrence by as much as 36
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percent in women we’ll get back to what
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the research both mouse and human says
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about the duration of the time windows
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involved but first let’s talk a little
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bit about the circadian aspect when
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healthy adults eat meals that are
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identical in terms of both their macro
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nutrient and caloric content at
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breakfast lunch or dinner
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the postprandial glucose increase is a
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lowest after breakfast and highest after
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dinner even though the meals were a
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hundred percent identical this is just
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one example that suggests metabolism
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changes throughout the day we also know
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that in humans metabolic genes are more
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active during the day and less active at
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night the underlying reason for this is
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because humans are diurnal creatures
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which means that we conduct most of our
14:56
activities during the day including
14:57
feeding exercising and working and then
15:00
resting at night what makes humans
15:02
diurnal creatures is the presence of an
15:04
internal clock in the brain referred to
15:05
as the suprachiasmatic nucleus or SCN
15:07
for short the part of this internal
15:10
clock that interacts with the external
15:11
cue of light the Sen is also referred to
15:13
as the master oscillator but light isn’t
15:16
the only external cue we have we also
15:18
have food influencing what are known as
15:20
peripheral oscillators that occur in
15:22
peripheral tissues such as the liver and
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influenced metabolism
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whereas light is a major to four
15:28
circadian rhythm timing of food intake
15:30
regulates circadian rhythm in peripheral
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tissues as well this fax sort of helps
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to explain
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why time restricted eating as its
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defined by dr. panda’s work and that of
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others begins with the eating period
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with the very first bite or drink of
15:43
anything non water because even
15:46
compounds that exist in black coffee
15:47
such as caffeine can be reasonably
15:50
expected to produce metabolic effects
15:51
that influence these peripheral
15:53
oscillators including activity in the
15:55
liver everything from making
15:56
neurotransmitters to insulin to glucose
15:58
transport inside of cells to oxidizing
16:00
fatty acids to repairing damage is on a
16:03
24-hour cycle clock that is influenced
16:05
by these external cues involving
16:07
metabolism to sort of illustrate the
16:09
importance of circadian rhythm these
16:11
clocks regulate thousands and thousands
16:13
of genes which is somewhere in the
16:14
neighborhood of around 10 to 15 percent
16:15
of the expressed human genome which
16:18
means that our much basic metabolic
16:19
physiology is meant to be tuned to
16:22
behave differently depending on the time
16:24
of day that it is even the bacteria that
16:26
we Harbor on our guts have a circadian
16:27
rhythm with the species of bacteria
16:29
changing according to the time of day
16:31
some bacteria dominate during the
16:33
morning and others during the evening
16:34
unfortunately with the invention of
16:36
artificial lighting and the varying work
16:37
schedules it has extended people’s
16:39
eating times to occur much later in the
16:41
evening and this can have very negative
16:43
consequences eating late at night may
16:45
also reset peripheral clocks and result
16:47
in misalignment of metabolism which
16:49
means when you wake up your metabolism
16:51
is already at the end of its cycle so
16:53
that’s the logic behind the circadian
16:55
aspect which gets left out of some of
16:57
the intermittent fasting philosophies
16:58
that are popular and explains why time
17:00
restrictive eating emphasizes an earlier
17:02
eating window and includes non-caloric
17:04
xenobiotics as breaking the fast
17:06
something I’ve learned is a specific
17:08
point of contention for people okay but
17:10
shifting away from the xenobiotics and
17:12
circadian aspects to talk more about the
17:14
time window itself animals that have
17:16
been limited to a 9 to 12 hour feeding
17:17
window in which they can eat but
17:19
otherwise allowing them to eat the same
17:21
amount of calories that they normally
17:22
would they have shown that they can
17:24
attain some pretty amazing benefits
17:25
including decreased fat mass increased
17:28
lean muscle mass improved glucose
17:30
tolerance improved lipid profile reduced
17:32
inflammation higher mitochondrial volume
17:34
protection from mild age-related fatty
17:37
liver protection from obesity generally
17:39
favourable improvements in gene
17:41
expression and increased production of
17:43
ketone bodies which is interesting for
17:45
another reason we’ll go back to in a
17:46
minute time restriction eating also has
17:48
a growing body of
17:49
research in humans recent studies
17:50
suggest that mentioned briefly earlier
17:52
eating within an 11 hour window was
17:55
associated with a decreased breast
17:57
cancer risk and reduction in recurrence
17:59
by as much as 36 percent earlier meal
18:01
timing associates with improved
18:03
effectiveness of weight-loss therapy in
18:05
overweight and obese people for each
18:07
three hour increase in night time
18:09
fasting duration was linked with a 20%
18:12
lower odds of elevated glycated
18:14
hemoglobin hba1c which say more
18:17
long-term marker for blood glucose
18:19
levels for each 10% increase in the
18:21
proportion of calories consumed after 5
18:23
p.m. there was a 3% increase in the
18:26
inflammatory biomarkers c-reactive
18:28
protein otherwise known as CRP eating
18:31
one additional meal during a day instead
18:33
of the evening was associated with an 8%
18:35
decrease in c-reactive protein eating
18:38
within a 12-hour window improved sleep
18:40
and increased weight loss in normal
18:41
weight people as a rule of thumb
18:43
anything that has the potential to
18:44
mitigate chronic systemic inflammation
18:46
is something I personally consider worth
18:48
trying to dial in cents suppression of
18:50
inflammation is thought to be one of the
18:52
most important predictors of successful
18:54
longevity that increases importance with
18:56
advancing age and also influences the
18:59
risk of cancer and even potentially
19:00
mental health so putting aside the
19:02
potential to have better blood glucose
19:04
control or protect myself from obesity
19:06
without actually changing the
19:07
composition of my diet reducing systemic
19:10
inflammation has a lot of appeal to me
19:12
now that we are all on the same page in
19:13
terms of what some of the research shows
19:15
on the benefits of time restricted
19:17
eating I would like to go back and
19:18
address Brandon’s question about what my
19:20
best practices are surrounded time
19:22
restricted eating how you choose to
19:23
implement some of this information is
19:24
ultimately going to be dictated by life
19:26
circumstances that include practical
19:28
realities surrounding work schedule and
19:30
probably a million other things the
19:32
flexibility of my schedule however has
19:34
made implementing time restrictive
19:35
eating admittedly a bit easier unless I
19:38
have a social reason that forces me to
19:40
eat later in the day I usually start my
19:42
clocks as soon as I wake up thus I don’t
19:44
concern myself a whole lot about what
19:46
counts as breaking the fasts and what
19:48
doesn’t and I go by the strictest of
19:50
definitions if it’s not water it breaks
19:52
the fast unless it’s just brushing my
19:54
teeth I don’t count that if I wake up at
19:56
8 a.m. and have my first tip of coffee
19:58
at 8:15 then I make a note to myself or
20:00
I set an alarm on my phone
20:02
one and a half hours before the clock
20:04
ends which is usually around 6:15 p.m.
20:06
since I aim for around a 10 hour eating
20:08
window and a 14 hour nighttime fasting
20:11
window when I’m feeling especially
20:13
motivated I eat within an 8 or 9 hour
20:15
time window and fast for 15 or 16 hours
20:18
during the night which means if I have
20:19
my first sip of coffee at 8:15 a.m. then
20:22
I stop eating by either 4:15 or 5:15
20:24
p.m. I follow the same procedure on days
20:27
I sleep in
20:28
even though animal research shows that
20:29
this pattern has benefits even if you
20:31
cheat on the weekend now the reason why
20:33
I chose a 10 hour window is because it’s
20:35
a sufficiently tight window of time to
20:37
likely confer some of the advantages of
20:39
time restricted eating without being
20:41
unduly burdensome personal compliance
20:43
here being the issue stretching for the
20:45
nine hour or even eight hour window
20:47
however can be also be interesting and
20:49
may appeal to some some animal research
20:51
has shown that a certain aerobic
20:53
endurance benefit for time restricted
20:54
feeding in this nine hour range but not
20:57
for shorter fasts and if you think about
20:59
it my said only feed for nine hour
21:01
periods and are fasting for the other 15
21:03
hours it makes sense it takes around 10
21:05
to 12 hours for liver glycogen stores to
21:08
be depleted which is then followed by
21:09
fatty acids being liberated from adipose
21:11
tissue these fatty acids are then
21:13
transported to the liver where they are
21:14
converted into ketone bodies like beta
21:16
hydroxy butyrate which are then
21:17
transported to a wide variety of other
21:19
tissues such as the muscle and used for
21:21
energy so it sort of makes sense that
21:23
eating within a nine-hour window and
21:25
fasting for 15 hours overnight may lead
21:27
to endurance enhancements if we’ve
21:29
managed to kick off a little more ketone
21:31
production the evening before a run
21:32
anecdotally I’ve observed that
21:34
personally I feel an improvement in
21:35
endurance ranging from slight to pretty
21:37
significant in my morning runs when I’ve
21:39
tried a little bit harder to eat
21:40
strictly within an eight or nine hour
21:42
time window just as a closing thought I
21:45
think there is still a lot of room for
21:46
more emerging research in this area to
21:48
teach us things that may be important
21:50
questions like what influenced later day
21:52
endurance or weight training has on
21:54
mitigating the deleterious effects of
21:56
other suboptimal parameters like a later
21:58
in the day eating window how large the
22:01
effect of xenobiotics like caffeine and
22:03
black coffee is compared to potentially
22:05
more important factor like just keeping
22:07
an otherwise tighter time window with a
22:09
slightly looser definition of what is
22:11
considered eating if you’d like to see
22:13
interesting questions answered about
22:14
time restricted eating you can actually
22:16
participate in a mobile app powered
22:17
distributed clinical trial by heading
22:20
over to dr. Sachin pandas lab website
22:22
which can be found at my circadian clock
22:25
org available for iPhone and Android
22:28
basically you commit to a baseline and
22:30
then one of the patterns of time
22:32
restricted eating and then proceed to
22:34
submit time-stamped pictures of your
22:35
food over the course of 12 weeks of
22:37
course I’d also be remiss if I didn’t
22:39
mention that a mutual friend and someone
22:41
has repeatedly been on the Tim Ferriss
22:42
show Kevin Rose has developed a cool
22:44
mobile app to help keep track of
22:46
intermittent fasting and time restricted
22:48
eating windows you can also check that
22:50
out if you’re an iPhone user it’s in the
22:52
App Store under the name zero as in the
22:54
number of calories you consume while
22:55
fasting to sort of finish off this
22:57
question as for who time restricted
22:59
feeding may not be a good fit for I’m
23:00
not sure as an intervention I believe it
23:03
is actually broadly applicable however
23:05
I’m 100% certain that there is someone
23:08
somewhere for which a unique medical
23:09
condition may make time restrictive
23:12
eating inappropriate especially if you
23:14
expand the definition of time restricted
23:15
eating to me long multi-day fast which
23:18
is the subject of dr. vulture Longo’s
23:20
research in particular definitely check
23:22
in with the position particularly if
23:23
you’re going to do a prolonged fast or
23:25
if you’re thinking of trying time
23:27
restricted eating but may have a medical
23:28
condition that for some reason might
23:30
somehow make it unsafe okay next
23:32
question
23:33
Josh kissing asks for all those that
23:36
don’t understand the benefits of fasting
23:37
how does doing it fast differ from say
23:40
eating a diet low carb high fat that
23:43
puts you into ketosis and what key
23:45
metrics for example blood tests should
23:47
someone look at to know it is benefiting
23:49
you very interesting question because as
23:51
implied by the question there are at
23:53
least a few similarities between a low
23:55
carb high fat diet and fasting but there
23:58
are also obviously some key differences
24:00
probably the main similarity between the
24:02
two is that metabolism shifts from using
24:04
glucose as the major source of energy to
24:06
primarily oxidation of fatty acids and
24:09
ketone bodies as energy when it comes to
24:11
fasting there are a few things that
24:13
really differentiate it from a low carb
24:15
high fat diet one of the major benefits
24:17
of fasting particularly prolonged
24:18
fasting which is around four to five
24:20
days in humans that is not found on a
24:22
low-carb high-fat diet is a dramatic
24:25
increase in Itachi and apoptosis
24:27
followed by a massive
24:29
in stem cell production a Chava G is a
24:32
genetic program that is very important
24:34
it clears away damaged cells to use for
24:36
energy while apoptosis is a genetic
24:38
program that causes damaged cells to
24:40
self-destruct both of these processes
24:42
prevent damaged cells from becoming
24:44
cancer cells when we clear away damaged
24:46
cells this also means those cells are
24:48
less likely to become senescent which is
24:50
what can happen when too much damage
24:52
accumulates a senescence cell is
24:54
technically a living cell but it is not
24:56
functioning in a way that is consistent
24:57
with maintaining the overall health of
24:59
an organ in fact quite the opposite
25:01
senescence cells can accelerate the
25:03
aging of nearby cells and promote tumor
25:05
growth by secreting pro-inflammatory
25:07
molecules and other factors senescence
25:10
cells are bad news as we age they are
25:12
everywhere from our livers to our hearts
25:14
to our brains and they accelerate the
25:15
aging process it has been shown in mice
25:17
when given a compound that increases the
25:19
clearance of senescent cells it actually
25:22
extends your average lifespan by 20%
25:24
another way that fasting really shines
25:26
particularly prolonged fasting is that
25:29
prolonged fasting has a very robust
25:30
effect on increasing stem cell numbers
25:32
the regenerative power of tissues and
25:34
organs decline with age it is stem cells
25:37
that provide this regenerative power and
25:39
because stem cell numbers decline with
25:40
age so does organ function which means
25:43
anything that can counter this is a wind
25:45
fasting also causes cells to clear away
25:47
damaged mitochondria and recycle their
25:49
defective components for energy called
25:51
maitake followed by a concomitant
25:54
generation of new mitochondria called
25:56
mitochondrial biogenesis this is a
25:58
really great thing because mitochondria
26:00
accumulate damage with age just as cells
26:02
do and this can accelerate the aging
26:04
process so not only does fasting clear
26:07
away old damaged mitochondria it also
26:10
generates new young a healthy
26:12
mitochondria to replace the damaged ones
26:14
there has also been some evidence that
26:16
suggesting that a low-carb high-fat diet
26:18
may modestly increase mitochondrial
26:20
biogenesis as well but not my toffee gee
26:22
another thing fasting does is it
26:24
increases the levels of something called
26:26
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nad
26:29
Plus which I will just refer to as nad
26:31
nad levels always increase during a
26:35
fasted State and decrease during the fed
26:37
State no matter what food type nad is a
26:40
very important cofactor for many
26:41
metabolic enzymes
26:43
which just means you need it for these
26:44
enzymes to work properly your
26:46
mitochondria I need nad to produce
26:48
energy from glucose or fatty acids
26:50
anytime there is chronic inflammation or
26:52
DNA damage occurring this sucks up the
26:54
nad and so the mitochondria suffer also
26:57
nad levels decrease in multiple tissues
27:00
with aging there are several different
27:02
compounds which are various forms of
27:03
vitamin b3 that dramatically increase
27:06
nad levels and have been shown to delay
27:08
aging in multiple tissues in mice yet
27:11
another difference between fasting and a
27:12
low-carb high-fat diet is that fasting
27:14
activates many repair processes
27:16
including repair of damaged DNA damaged
27:19
cells damaged mitochondria and damaged
27:22
proteins you must be in a fasted state
27:25
to repair damage which is why most
27:27
repair processes occur during sleep
27:29
because that is when most people are in
27:31
a fasted State fasting improves blood
27:33
sugar insulin sensitivity and blood
27:35
lipids and improves inflammatory markers
27:37
including c-reactive protein and tumor
27:39
necrosis factor also known as TNF alpha
27:42
and improves adiponectin leptin and
27:44
brain-derived neurotropic factor in
27:46
humans a low-carb high-fat diet has also
27:49
been shown to improve blood glucose and
27:50
insulin levels and also reduce
27:52
inflammation but not always consistently
27:54
and may be highly variable depending on
27:57
the individual which is likely due to
27:58
the fact that the way our bodies respond
28:00
to food is also complicated by genetics
28:03
we have variations in our genes that
28:05
make them operate a little differently
28:07
from similar versions in other members
28:09
of the human population these variations
28:11
are known as genetic polymorphisms one
28:14
of the best examples I have seen yet
28:16
demonstrating the immense variability
28:18
and how people respond to the same foods
28:20
was a publication that came out in 2015
28:22
in the journal Cell the study looked at
28:25
the blood glucose responses of over 800
28:28
different people to various foods
28:30
including fat without getting into all
28:32
the details of this study what is
28:33
important the topic of this discussion
28:35
is that while most people had a low
28:37
glucose response to dietary fat some
28:40
people had a high glucose response there
28:42
have even been a few important gene
28:44
polymorphisms that have been identified
28:45
to play a role in the context of a
28:47
high-fat diet such as sto P P R alpha P
28:51
P R gamma and apoe4
28:53
PP R alpha is one of the most important
28:55
genes that I’ll mention because it plays
28:56
a very
28:57
role in the process of ketogenesis
28:59
activation of PPR alpha promotes uptake
29:01
utilization and catabolism the fatty
29:03
acids by activating genes involved in
29:05
fatty acid transport fatty acid binding
29:08
and activation and fatty acid oxidation
29:10
there is a polymorphism in this gene
29:12
that has been associated with lower PPI
29:15
or alpha activity and a two-fold higher
29:17
risk of type 2 diabetes increased levels
29:20
of triglycerides increased total
29:22
cholesterol increased LDL cholesterol
29:24
and especially important increase small
29:27
dense LDL particles in the context of
29:29
high saturated fat intake and low
29:31
polyunsaturated fat intake obviously
29:34
measuring these blood biomarkers will
29:35
help illuminate whether any type of diet
29:37
works for you there are also a variety
29:39
of resources on the web link and help
29:40
you take your raw genetic data from
29:42
services like 23andme and find out
29:44
whether you have some of these
29:45
polymorphisms i similarly offer some
29:48
resources for this on my website found
29:50
my fitness comm for this purpose in
29:52
terms of biomarkers things that I would
29:54
monitor particularly if I were doing a
29:55
ketogenic diet might include biomarkers
29:57
for lipid and glucose metabolism such as
30:00
lvl small dense LDL particles total
30:02
cholesterol triglycerides glycated
30:04
hemoglobin hba1c you can also measure
30:08
your fasting blood glucose levels and
30:10
ketone levels at home using something
30:11
like precision extra which I find to be
30:14
mostly reliable and I also use I also
30:16
like to be aware of any inflammatory
30:17
biomarkers I can get my hands on through
30:20
some common measurements like high
30:21
sensitivity to react to protein and also
30:23
il-6 and Tina’s alpha for those people
30:26
experimenting with a strict ketogenic
30:27
diet for greater than six months it may
30:29
be wise to measure thyroid function by
30:31
doing a full thyroid panel there was a
30:33
recent publication where a ketogenic
30:35
diet for nine months caused thyroid
30:37
dysfunction and children with epilepsy
30:39
this may not be something to worry about
30:41
in everyone but it does not hurt to be
30:42
cautious for Tozzi related and stem-cell
30:45
related biomarkers there are some used
30:47
in research that you unfortunately can’t
30:49
really get ahold of for self monitoring
30:51
purposes for a tapa g/l c-32 and for
30:55
stem-cell self-renewal Lyn negative cd18
30:58
for positive cd45 of negative cells okay
31:02
one quick closing point to sort of
31:03
finish this section off it’s important
31:05
when we talk about fasting that we make
31:07
clear distinctions between the various
31:09
duration of fast
31:10
think about if we discuss prolonged
31:12
fasting as I have done a lot in
31:13
answering this question that means we’re
31:15
talking about a water fast on the order
31:17
of four to five days
31:19
however in Mouse research this level of
31:21
fasting is actually achieved in two to
31:23
three days this has led to some
31:25
confusion because people often attribute
31:27
the so-called benefits of prolonged
31:28
fasting to shorter intervals that are a
31:30
bit more manageable because they might
31:32
have ran across this rodent research the
31:34
fact is that we may see some of the same
31:36
benefits such as a tapa G even with
31:38
shorter fast but on an order of
31:40
magnitude greater with prolonged fasts
31:42
also with a prolonged fast which the
31:44
entire organ systems can shrink and then
31:47
can experience renewal during the
31:48
repeating period so it should be pretty
31:50
clear that we’re actually talking about
31:52
a whole different level of cellular
31:53
cleanup that can occur which is above
31:55
and beyond what we actually get in
31:57
shorter fasts there’s still a lot of
31:59
research going on to better tease out
32:00
the differences between shorter let’s
32:02
say 2-day fast and fast that meet the
32:04
definition of being a prolonged fast I’m
32:06
optimistic that evidence will continue
32:08
to emerge and that even shorter duration
32:11
fasts are still very beneficial that
32:13
said as Kim likes to say I’m not a
32:15
medical doctor and don’t play one on the
32:17
internet if you’re thinking about giving
32:19
prolonged fasting a shot make sure to
32:21
follow the prudent podcast listeners
32:22
rule and run it by an actual physician
32:24
there’s also an emerging body of
32:26
literature surrounding a fasting
32:28
mimicking diet that lasts five days
32:30
instead of four and can be prescribed by
32:31
a doctor by a packaged meal plan if
32:34
having that structure is helpful on to
32:36
the next question Jeff Norton asks
32:38
Rhonda can you please share your
32:40
thoughts on the minimum effective dose
32:41
for sauna benefits session time
32:44
temperature and frequency from this
32:46
minimum effective dose what types of
32:48
changes benefits can someone expect with
32:51
this question I’m going to start with
32:53
the benefit sense of a point of logical
32:55
progression it’s helpful to establish
32:57
what the science says about the benefits
32:58
before we talk about how to dose it the
33:01
good news is I’ve actually partly done a
33:02
pretty good job of talking about some
33:04
potential benefits for sauna use and a
33:06
guest post that’s featured on Tim’s blog
33:08
entitled our sauna the next big
33:10
performance-enhancing drug it’s possible
33:12
Jeff’s already seen that but for the
33:14
rest of you make sure to check that out
33:16
since that initial blog post however
33:18
some pretty cool research has come out
33:19
related to sauna use and it touches on
33:21
areas that I spend a lot of time
33:23
thinking about well
33:24
and also Alzheimer’s disease so if you
33:26
were me for a minute while I talk about
33:28
some of this and then get back to Jess
33:29
questions surrounding what the minimum
33:31
effective dose might be with respect to
33:32
temperature sauna session time and
33:34
frequency to elicit some effects that
33:36
might be loosely characterized as orgo
33:38
genic or enhancing physical performance
33:40
in some respects a study published in
33:42
JAMA internal medicine in 2015 showed
33:44
that sauna use was associated with
33:46
longevity the study recruited over 2000
33:48
middle-aged men in Finland and compared
33:50
frequency of sauna use with sudden
33:52
cardiac death fatal coronary heart
33:53
disease fatal cardiovascular disease and
33:55
all cause mortality including cancer of
33:58
the course of 20 years heart disease is
34:00
the leading cause of death in the United
34:02
States and many other countries as well
34:04
so that should be a cue to listen up
34:05
here’s what the study found that fatal
34:08
cardiovascular disease was a twenty
34:09
seven percent lower in men who used this
34:11
on a two to three times a week and 50%
34:13
lower for men who use the sauna forty
34:15
seven times per week compared with men
34:17
who just used the sauna once a week in
34:19
addition to lowering cardiovascular rate
34:21
of mortality the study also found the
34:23
sauna use lowered all cause mortality
34:25
full stop using this on a to three times
34:28
per week was associated with a 24% lower
34:30
all cause mortality and four to seven
34:33
times per week lowered all cause
34:34
mortality by forty percent let’s talk
34:36
about all the cause mortality what does
34:38
it mean does it mean that using the
34:39
sauna four to seven times per week made
34:41
forty percent people immortal no what it
34:44
means is that for the individuals being
34:45
studied they had 40% less mortality than
34:48
those of a similar age not being
34:50
subjected to the same conditions and
34:52
this reduction in mortality was strictly
34:54
tied to heart disease but instead
34:56
something potentially more general keep
34:58
in mind this study also adjusted for
34:59
other parameters that may affect the
35:01
data including body mass serum
35:03
cholesterol blood pressure smoking
35:05
alcohol consumption type 2 diabetes
35:07
physical activity and socioeconomic
35:09
status we’ll come back to talk more
35:12
about this generalized lung youngevity
35:14
effects in a minute since it’s
35:15
interesting to discuss plausible
35:17
mechanisms that underlie that effect the
35:19
effects on heart disease however are a
35:20
little more straightforward to try to
35:22
explain some of the more positive
35:24
benefits of sauna use on heart health
35:25
may have to do with similar benefits
35:27
seen with regular physical exercise
35:29
heart rate can increase up to a hundred
35:31
beats per minute during moderate sauna
35:33
bathing sessions and up to 150 beats per
35:35
minute during more intense warm sauna
35:37
use
35:37
150 beats per minute corresponds to
35:39
moderate intensity physical exercise
35:41
which as we already know has a very
35:44
positive effect on cardiovascular health
35:45
heat stress from sauna youth also
35:47
increases plasma volume and blood flow
35:49
to the heart known as stroke volume this
35:51
results in reduced cardiovascular strain
35:53
so that your heart has had less work for
35:55
each beat that it does to pump
35:56
oxygen-rich blood to your tissues into
35:58
your brain
35:58
additionally long-term sauna use has
36:00
been shown to generally improve blood
36:02
pressure and athelia function and left
36:04
ventricular function but crossing over
36:06
from theory to more practical what-if
36:08
improving heart health really just meant
36:10
having a boost in endurance in fact that
36:13
is exactly what has been demonstrated
36:14
one study demonstrated that a 30-minute
36:16
sauna session two times a week for three
36:18
weeks post-workout increase the time
36:21
that it took for the study participants
36:22
to run till exhaustion by 32% compared
36:25
to baseline if you start to think of
36:27
mild adaptation to heat stress as a
36:28
proxy for some of the benefits of
36:30
exercise
36:30
the generalized longevity effect starts
36:33
to make sense but there may be molecular
36:35
mechanisms for this as well there’s two
36:37
pathways in particular I’d like to
36:39
briefly highlight heat shock proteins
36:41
produced by ourselves in response to
36:42
heat stress and also another pathway
36:44
known as Fox o3 sauna use robustly
36:47
activates a class of stress response
36:49
proteins known as heat shock proteins
36:50
and heat shock proteins have been
36:52
implicated in aging where increased
36:54
expression has been shown to
36:55
mechanistically in lower organisms to
36:57
confer increase longevity and similarly
37:00
polymorphisms in human populations that
37:02
increase heat shock protein production
37:04
have also been shown to have an
37:05
association with increased longevity to
37:07
understand why this is the case it is
37:09
helpful to know the purpose of heat
37:10
shock proteins also known as HSPs heat
37:13
shock proteins help all other proteins
37:15
maintain their proper 3-dimensional
37:16
structure in the cell which is important
37:18
for each protein in order for it to be
37:20
able to perform its function its various
37:23
interactions that occur disrupt the
37:25
structure of that protein for example
37:27
denaturing it then this prevents the
37:29
protein from doing its function and
37:31
changing the half-life of it as I
37:33
briefly mentioned earlier damaging
37:35
products get created from normal immune
37:37
system function and metabolism these
37:39
damaging molecules produced at a low
37:41
level every day even in the best of
37:43
circumstances but made worse by poor
37:45
lifestyle choices damaged proteins and
37:48
disrupt their structure moreover once
37:50
approach
37:51
structure is damaged it can then miss
37:53
fold preventing it from being degraded
37:55
and can lead to the accumulation of
37:57
toxic protein aggregates that can
37:59
themselves damage cells as well protein
38:02
aggregates something heat shock proteins
38:03
specifically help prevent the
38:05
accumulation of are associated with
38:06
neurodegenerative diseases such as
38:08
Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s
38:09
disease and Huntington’s disease in fact
38:12
when you take normal mice that have an
38:14
engineer to accumulate amyloid beta
38:16
plaques characteristic of alzheimers
38:18
disease they do begin to manifest a
38:21
pathology in the brain that is similar
38:23
to what we might call Alzheimer’s in
38:24
humans but if you engineer these same
38:27
mice to over produce one of the more
38:29
well-known heat-shock proteins called
38:31
hsp70 it reduces the severity of this
38:34
condition including reducing the
38:36
associated loss of neurons and synapses
38:38
so if you think about it this might
38:40
suggest something interesting we know
38:42
that heat shock proteins are produced in
38:44
response to heat stress and that they
38:46
seem to help prevent symptoms of
38:47
Alzheimer’s disease in mice by reducing
38:49
protein aggregation and helping keep
38:50
proteins from losing their structure in
38:52
the first place what if by naturally
38:55
increasing our heat shock protein
38:56
expression we could reduce the risk of
38:58
Alzheimer’s disease the same group that
39:00
studied over 2000 ml sauna goers found a
39:03
very interesting Association from the
39:04
same cohort that they later published in
39:06
another paper they found that men that
39:09
used this on a 2 to 3 times per week had
39:11
a 22% lower risk of dementia and a 20%
39:14
lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease
39:15
compared to men that only uses on a one
39:17
time a week men that use this on a four
39:20
to seven times a week had a 66 percent
39:22
lower risk of dementia and a 65 percent
39:24
lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease
39:26
compared to men that only uses on a once
39:28
a week once again just as before
39:30
this is after adjustment for age alcohol
39:32
consumption body mass index systolic
39:34
blood pressure smoking status type 2
39:36
diabetes previous myocardial infarction
39:39
resting heart rate and serum LDL
39:41
cholesterol now whether or not it was
39:43
the heat shock proteins may be a great
39:45
idea for future research but as a
39:47
plausible mechanism heat shock proteins
39:49
seem as a very good likely explanation
39:51
for what is going on there since we’ve
39:53
also mentioned briefly the endurance and
39:55
cardiovascular benefits of sauna youth
39:57
particularly in a trial involving run
39:59
until exhaustion aerobic activity it’s
40:01
also worth mentioning that vo2 max
40:04
the bodies kept maximum capacity to
40:06
transport and use oxygen during exercise
40:08
has a strong association with cognitive
40:11
capability in old age which may have
40:13
something to do with the brain perfusion
40:14
and even the ability for blood perfusion
40:16
to wash away metabolic waste products
40:18
including amyloid beta the other
40:20
molecular pathway of interest that may
40:22
help explain some of what’s going on
40:23
with this association between a type of
40:25
longevity and sauna youth mentioned
40:27
earlier is a pathway known as the Fox o3
40:29
pathway there is some evidence that part
40:32
of this natural cellular stress response
40:33
when confronted with heat is an
40:36
activation of this pathway Fox o3 is one
40:39
of the big aging genes for which regular
40:40
old fashioned genetic variation has
40:42
shown is involved in longevity humans
40:45
with a polymorphism that make more Fox
40:47
o3 have up to a two point seven fold
40:49
increased chance of living to be a
40:51
centenarian and in mice having more of
40:53
their homologous version of this same
40:55
gene can extend their lifespan by up to
40:56
30% as the pattern of aging our Fox o3
41:00
activation trends downward decreasing
41:02
expression with age
41:03
boxer 3 is a master regulator involved
41:06
in etapa G DNA repair metabolism
41:08
endogenous antioxidant production stem
41:10
cell function and immune function since
41:13
we’ve already spent so much time
41:14
navigating the especially relevant
41:15
waters of HSPs I’ll leave the discussion
41:18
of Fox o3 alone for now ok so we got a
41:20
little bit distracted talking about
41:21
mechanism and other various odds and
41:23
ends surrounding sonnies but to return
41:25
to part of the core of the question
41:26
asked by Jeff we need to address minimum
41:29
effective joes for the minimal benefits
41:31
of lower cardiovascular disease
41:33
mortality lower all cause mortality and
41:35
lower Alzheimer’s disease risk we have
41:37
to address the literature that actually
41:39
observed these effects in this case that
41:41
would be 20 minutes at 174 degrees
41:44
Fahrenheit or 79 degrees Celsius two to
41:47
three times per week remember though
41:49
that those that use this on a four to
41:51
seven times a week had an even more
41:53
robust effect this is actually a pretty
41:55
great guide because we’ve got a range of
41:57
effects based on dosing in a pretty
41:59
large trial of around 2,000 participants
42:01
if we turn our attention to smaller
42:04
studies such as the run until exhaustion
42:05
endurance trial we mentioned earlier the
42:08
minimum effective dose for endurance
42:09
appear to be 30 minutes in a 194
42:12
Fahrenheit or 90 degrees Celsius on it
42:15
twice a week a dose which by the way
42:17
produce
42:18
a maximum heart rate of 140 beats per
42:20
minute this last point is especially
42:22
interesting if you consider the fact
42:24
that maximal heart rate might be an
42:26
appealing candidate for quantified
42:28
Sulphurs to track their physiological
42:30
response to heat stress when other
42:32
variables may differ take for example
42:34
the fact that not all saunas get is hot
42:36
especially the infrared ones that run
42:38
cooler
42:39
it does seem reasonable to think however
42:41
that turning the knobs on other aspects
42:43
of the sauna session by making changes
42:45
for example to the duration you can
42:48
probably still elicit comparable effects
42:50
what I have not discussed yet but
42:52
mentioned in a guest post on Tim’s blog
42:54
certain studies have demonstrated some
42:56
effects on muscle mass and recovery and
42:57
animal and human trials for endocrine
43:00
effects in the area of growth hormone
43:01
for example multiple studies report
43:03
ranges of twenty to thirty minutes
43:05
at around 176 degrees Fahrenheit or 80
43:08
degrees Celsius in the neighborhood of
43:10
two to three times a week again pretty
43:12
similar to the larger 2000 person
43:14
mortality in Al summer studies mentioned
43:16
earlier finally molecular evidence for
43:18
heat shock protein induction seems to
43:19
indicate that healthy young men and
43:21
women sitting in around a hundred and
43:23
sixty-three degrees Fahrenheit or around
43:25
a seventy three degrees celsius sauna
43:27
for thirty minutes are able to increase
43:29
their heat shock protein levels
43:30
including hsp70 two by forty-nine
43:33
percent and that the elevation in heat
43:35
shock protein levels persist for 48
43:37
hours after the initial heat stress
43:39
suggesting two to three times per week
43:41
is again a good moderate frequency to
43:44
hit a threshold for some of these
43:46
sustained effects so it’s pretty clear
43:48
we have a few options available to us
43:49
some more mild than others more popular
43:52
here where I live in the United States
43:54
are infrared saunas which don’t get
43:56
quite as hot often limited to about a
43:58
hundred and forty degrees Fahrenheit or
44:00
sixty degrees Celsius for reasons of
44:02
practicality and because I believe that
44:04
benefits from the sauna are primarily
44:05
conferred directly by heat I tend to
44:08
prefer a hotter sauna but it seems
44:10
wholly reasonable that making other
44:11
adjustments like preceding the sauna
44:13
session with the light cardio for
44:15
example might help make up for other
44:17
little differences it’s hard to know for
44:18
absolute certain but I’m optimistic all
44:20
that said I think it’s a good moment to
44:23
make a point to give the same warning
44:24
Tim gives on his blog surrounding sauna
44:26
use and heat stress in general try to
44:29
exercise good judgment if you have some
44:31
sort of medical
44:32
all bets are off even if you don’t think
44:34
you have a medical condition it’s
44:36
reasonably worth checking in with a
44:38
doctor before becoming some kind of mega
44:41
sauna enthusiast heat can be a no-joke
44:44
and it’s important that you don’t hurt
44:45
yourself
44:46
finally there’s other so-called benefits
44:48
that I have suggested may exist on Tim’s
44:49
blog but they didn’t get to talk about
44:51
today areas where the science may be
44:54
promising but not quite as robust or
44:56
otherwise confer itself well to talking
44:57
about a minimum effective dose including
44:59
the possibility that sauna use could
45:01
play a role in mood and attention by
45:03
increasing norepinephrine and affecting
45:05
our sensitivity to and production of
45:07
beta endorphin giving us a sort of
45:09
runner’s high the potential of which was
45:11
something that initially appealed to me
45:12
when experimenting with my own personal
45:14
sauna use or the possibility that sauna
45:18
use may reduce muscle atrophy and then
45:20
affect muscle regrowth and effect which
45:22
while very interesting is mostly shown
45:25
in animal studies that might be hard to
45:26
then try to apply back to humans so
45:29
definitely go check out that post moving
45:31
forward we can now talk about the flip
45:32
side of the coin with our next question
45:35
from senato s’mores he says I would like
45:38
to know about the interaction between
45:40
heat and cold exposure and if they will
45:42
cancel one another out for example if I
45:45
do a workout and then sauna for 10 to 20
45:47
minutes to engage the heat shock
45:49
proteins to maximize the hormonal
45:51
response and then proceed to take a cold
45:53
shower will that cancel out the benefit
45:55
of the sauna and heat exposure also will
45:58
that make the cold exposure less
46:00
effective for this question I’m going to
46:02
choose to focus on discussing the
46:03
question of combining heat stress and
46:05
cold stress in rapid succession rather
46:07
than a discussion of the combination of
46:09
either with exercise which is sort of a
46:11
different overlapping discussion which
46:13
comes up in a different question which
46:14
I’ll get to in a moment so to answer
46:16
this question with our slightly narrowed
46:17
parameters I’ve been trying to find
46:19
empirical evidence in the scientific
46:21
literature discussing various aspects of
46:23
combining heat stress and cold stress
46:25
and have come up pretty dry when it
46:27
comes to answering a lot of the big
46:28
questions surrounding the combination of
46:30
both these modalities in rapid
46:31
succession frankly it’s hard to find
46:34
good information whether we’re talking
46:35
about winter swimming as in s10 by sauna
46:38
goers in Finland or simply a cold shower
46:40
or far more extreme alternating between
46:43
sauna and ice baths as described by Rick
46:45
Rubin and
46:45
Ferriss during their sauna podcasting
46:47
experience one thing we can do a little
46:50
bit of however is turn to the molecular
46:51
evidence what may surprise many of you
46:54
is that both heat stress from the sauna
46:56
and even cold stress are both able to
46:58
activate heat shock proteins this is
47:00
because heat shock proteins respond to
47:03
cellular stress in general and not
47:04
exclusively heat stress heat as a
47:07
cellular stress does cause a more robust
47:09
activation than cold though still is
47:12
sort of good to know that both types of
47:14
thermal stress seems to positively
47:16
affect heat shock protein expression
47:17
which we sort of established may have
47:19
something to do with some of the
47:21
benefits we might ascribe to sauna use
47:23
but it’s sort of important to ask
47:24
yourself what you’re trying to
47:25
accomplish with cold exposure aspect one
47:28
of the main reasons I like to expose
47:30
myself to cold are the effects it seems
47:31
to have on the brain moved and possibly
47:34
attention one of the most likely
47:35
candidates for eliciting and effect is
47:37
norepinephrine which is also the
47:39
catecholamine that is actually
47:41
responsible for triggering the Browning
47:42
of fat making our fat more metabolically
47:45
active in fact in terms of pathways or
47:47
physiological responses to cold the
47:50
release of norepinephrine into the
47:51
bloodstream as well as in the locus
47:53
karolius region of the brain is one of
47:55
the more profound guess what else
47:57
increases norepinephrine release heat
47:59
from sauna use so this is the second way
48:02
in which both hot and cold instead of
48:04
having opposing effects where one
48:06
cancels out the other at the molecular
48:08
level are nudging some of the same
48:10
pathways in the same direction but to
48:12
elicit these overlapping stress
48:14
responses you have to actually get cold
48:16
enough for that to happen otherwise
48:18
you’re just taking some of that heat
48:19
burden you created on your own body and
48:21
removing it how cold is cold is the real
48:24
question we have to ask here in the case
48:26
of an ice bath I suspect the stress is
48:28
almost certainly additive in nature the
48:30
extremes of going from a 200 to reshare
48:32
in mind sauna to near freezing water
48:34
isn’t a walk in the park in the case of
48:36
a 30 second cold shower that isn’t
48:38
sufficient to even trigger momentary
48:40
discomfort is probably not adding stress
48:43
but in fact simply removing it this
48:45
isn’t strictly a bad thing if that’s
48:46
what you’re wanting to do that said to
48:48
give you an idea for some of the
48:49
threshold temperatures involved to
48:51
elicit the norepinephrine response of
48:52
cold stress studies have shown that
48:54
people that immerse themselves in cold
48:56
water at 40 degrees Fahrenheit or 4.42
48:58
resale see
48:59
for 20 seconds increase their
49:01
norepinephrine two to threefold or 200
49:03
to 300 percent and this release and
49:06
norepinephrine didn’t seem to be reduced
49:07
with habituation to cold long durations
49:10
of cold water exposure under more
49:12
moderate temperature have a more potent
49:14
effect on norepinephrine release for
49:16
example in another study people that
49:17
spent one hour in 57 degree Fahrenheit
49:20
or 14 degrees Celsius water increased
49:22
norepinephrine and their blood streams
49:24
by 530 percent over baseline as anyone
49:27
who I swam in the Pacific Ocean knows
49:28
this is still quite cold and certainly
49:30
sufficiently uncomfortable but it’s
49:32
probably very possible depending on
49:34
where you live and the season to get a
49:36
shower that is similarly cold or even
49:38
more cold something I personally observe
49:41
that sort of interesting is that after
49:42
sufficiently intense sauna session
49:44
it can be very hard to stop sweating and
49:46
even potentially hours after you cool
49:48
down unless you’ve had a very borderline
49:50
painfully cold shower for social reasons
49:53
at least for me personally it can almost
49:54
be a requirement one last quick note
49:56
before we move on to the next question
49:58
which shares some overlap with this one
49:59
I mentioned a moment ago that the
50:01
information surrounding going from hot
50:03
to cold such as combining ice baths with
50:05
the sauna or even just doing the sauna
50:07
and winter swimming combination has done
50:09
in Finland or elsewhere is lacking one
50:11
of the areas I’d like to see more
50:13
information on is actually safety
50:15
there’s clearly a cultural history in
50:17
some places of going from a hot sauna
50:19
right into an icy lake but there is at
50:22
least one case study reported in the
50:24
literature of a heavy smoker having a
50:25
heart attack
50:26
possibly as a result of a plaque rupture
50:28
caused by a coronary artery spasm after
50:31
doing many many rounds of contrast
50:33
immersion over several hours I
50:35
personally then I sighs interspersed
50:37
with sauna youths work Reuben style and
50:38
found it to be very very enjoyable it
50:40
seems to help me sleep better and I
50:42
definitely felt like my mood was
50:44
significantly affected for even the next
50:46
24 hours
50:47
more so than either alone so I’m hopeful
50:49
we’ll see some research come out that
50:51
proves the case report to be irrelevant
50:53
Association and somehow demonstrating
50:55
ultimate safety but in the meantime I’m
50:57
hesitant and a little cautious for the
51:00
broader audience listening now I will
51:01
make the same advice I made earlier
51:03
please please be careful what you
51:05
subject yourself to you especially if
51:07
you have a condition that might warrant
51:08
such caution if in doubt check with the
51:11
position before you take up and you pull
51:13
reproach habit okay on to our next
51:15
question rob flicker asks dr. Rhonda
51:18
Patrick can you explain your thoughts on
51:19
how regular hyperthermic conditioning
51:21
and hypothermic stress relate to muscle
51:23
hypertrophy and strength training first
51:26
for a listener since Rob is clearly in
51:27
the know let me define what hyperthermic
51:29
conditioning is hyperthermic
51:31
conditioning refers to deliberately
51:32
acclimating yourself to heat either
51:34
independent up or in conjunction with
51:35
exercise I typically refer to
51:37
hypothermic conditioning in the context
51:39
of using the sauna because this is where
51:41
most empirical evidence is but there are
51:43
other modalities of heat exposure
51:44
including hot baths steam showers and
51:46
hot yoga and they probably create a
51:48
quality similar type of heat stress that
51:50
approximates on use on some level
51:52
depending on the intensity there are a
51:54
couple of main mechanisms that
51:55
hyperthermic conditioning through using
51:57
the sauna may plausibly affect muscle
51:59
hypertrophy first is to the robust
52:01
activation of heat shock proteins I
52:02
mentioned earlier how heat shock
52:04
proteins play a role in preventing
52:05
neurodegenerative diseases such as
52:07
Alzheimer’s disease by helping proteins
52:09
maintain their proper 3-dimensional
52:10
structure not only does this have a role
52:12
in preventing the aggregation of
52:14
proteins but it also plays a role in
52:16
muscle hypertrophy here’s why muscle
52:18
hypertrophy is ultimately the Delta
52:20
between protein degradation and new
52:21
protein synthesis when we train for
52:23
muscle hypertrophy we often put a lot of
52:26
thought into how to increase muscle
52:27
protein synthesis but if we reduce
52:29
protein degradation which is an effect
52:31
heat shock proteins have we still are
52:33
increasing our net protein synthesis by
52:35
increasing the difference between the
52:37
amount of new synthesis of muscle
52:39
protein versus the amount of degradation
52:40
that is happening this type of effect
52:42
has been shown in rats where it was
52:43
shown that a 30-minute heat treatment at
52:45
a temperature of around 160 reads
52:47
Fahrenheit or 41 degrees Celsius given
52:49
every 48 hours over a seven day period
52:51
caused a sustained increase in heat
52:53
shock proteins during that time frame
52:55
big surprise but more importantly this
52:57
actually correlated with a whopping 30%
52:59
more muscle regrowth than the control
53:02
group during the seven days after
53:03
immobilization which is not bad right
53:05
putting aside heat shock proteins for a
53:07
moment the other way that hypothermic
53:09
conditioning through using the sauna
53:10
could plausibly affect hypertrophy is by
53:12
robustly increasing growth hormone for
53:15
example to 20 minutes on a sessions at
53:16
around 176 degrees Fahrenheit or 80
53:19
degrees Celsius separated by a 30-minute
53:21
cooling period elevated growth hormone
53:23
levels to fold over baseline
53:26
more robust effect was found with men
53:28
using higher sauna temperatures for
53:29
example two 15-minute sauna sessions at
53:32
around 212 degrees Fahrenheit which is
53:34
around 100 degrees Celsius separated by
53:36
a 30-minute cooling period resulted in a
53:38
five-fold increase in growth hormone the
53:41
boost in growth hormone levels is
53:42
transient only lasts a couple of hours
53:44
to understand why this might be useful
53:46
it’s helpful to understand a little bit
53:47
more about this pathway many of the
53:49
effects of growth hormone are mediated
53:51
through another hormone known as igf-1
53:53
or insulin-like growth factor-1
53:54
igf-1 activating another pathway and
53:57
skeletal muscle known as mTOR which is
53:59
responsible for new protein synthesis
54:01
muscle cells require amino acids for
54:04
both growth and repair so if we can also
54:05
plausibly activate mTOR we’re now sort
54:08
of completing the circle with heat shock
54:10
protein induction we reduce protein
54:11
degradation and through these endocrine
54:13
effects actually we are increasing
54:15
protein synthesis by increasing net
54:17
protein synthesis we effectively
54:19
increase hypertrophy in fact if you sort
54:21
of reverse engineer the habits of body
54:23
builders igf-1 is actually one of the
54:25
major pathways most robustly activated
54:27
by dietary protein intake so the next
54:29
time you’re travelling down protein
54:31
powder or essential amino acids like
54:32
loosing you can be aware that part of
54:34
what you’re doing in the first place is
54:35
robustly activating the production and
54:37
release of igf-1 and thus mTOR protein
54:41
and specifically essential amino acids
54:42
are the major dietary regulars of igf-1
54:44
igf-1 plays a very important role in
54:47
muscle growth and repair for example
54:49
mice that have been engineered to
54:50
express high levels of igf-1 in their
54:52
muscle develop a greater degree and
54:54
diversity of skeletal muscle hypertrophy
54:56
similar experiments have also shown some
54:59
promise in combating age-related muscle
55:00
atrophy especially the kind found in a
55:02
mouse model of Duchenne muscular
55:03
dystrophy I’ve previously talked a
55:06
little bit about a so called trade-off
55:08
when it comes to igf-1 I’m not going to
55:10
dive into that yet we’ll talk a little
55:12
bit about that more in some of the diet
55:13
related questions but suffice to say I
55:16
think that in the context of sufficient
55:18
physical activity this so-called
55:19
trade-off may become a bit less
55:21
important that said let’s take a minute
55:23
to talk about the timing of sauna use in
55:25
particular and then we can talk about
55:26
cold showers or ice baths I like to
55:29
sauna after a workout first there’s
55:30
entirely practical reasons doing an
55:32
intense sauna session prior to working
55:34
out can increase exhaustion a little bit
55:36
too quickly making it very hard to
55:38
finish a workout
55:39
studies have shown that to be the case
55:40
empirically – but it’s also intuitively
55:42
obvious and on top of that the social
55:45
aspect of potentially drenching gym
55:46
equipment and your profuse sweating
55:47
makes it a little more sensible to sauna
55:49
afterwards but if it were not for those
55:51
reasons in particular there’s also just
55:52
the issue of when we most want to boost
55:54
igf-1 to answer that question it’s
55:57
helpful to be aware of the mechanism
55:58
involved in hypertrophy one of which in
56:00
fact becomes especially relevant when we
56:02
talk about the effect cold stress has
56:03
after training in a moment that
56:05
mechanism is inflammation when we train
56:08
as a result of mechanical work being
56:09
done we produce metabolic byproducts
56:11
like reactive oxygen species and we also
56:14
activate inflammatory cytokines this is
56:16
actually necessary to activate genetic
56:18
pathways that contribute to creating
56:20
more mitochondria mitochondrial
56:22
biogenesis as we talked about earlier
56:23
and also plays a role in muscle
56:25
hypertrophy in fact it is inflammation
56:28
that recruits immune cells such as
56:30
macrophages to skeletal muscle in order
56:32
to produce igf-1 that helps induce acute
56:34
muscle repair there has also been some
56:36
experimental evidence that indicates
56:38
that these specific immune cells are
56:39
also likely involved in Satellite cell
56:41
migration which is a type of muscle stem
56:44
cell that serve as precursors to actual
56:46
muscle cells and for which the raw
56:47
numbers are actually very closely
56:50
associated with the amount of actual
56:51
hypertrophy that occurs as a result of
56:53
strength training as we can see
56:55
inflammation seems to play a pretty
56:57
important role in the benefits of actual
56:58
training and this inflammation as
57:00
measured by an inflammatory cytokine
57:02
known as il-6
57:03
actually peaks during training and also
57:05
right after but then falls by 50% of its
57:08
initial peak after the first hour so in
57:11
a way if you’re going to try to pick a
57:12
time to increase growth hormone or igf-1
57:14
activity it makes sense to probably do
57:16
so in close proximity to when it’s
57:18
actually peaking in my mind I interpret
57:20
this to be pretty much immediately on
57:22
the tail end of my workout this peak of
57:23
inflammation potentiating igf-1
57:25
synthesis that goes on to play a role
57:27
and hypertrophy may become especially
57:29
relevant if we talk about the mixed
57:30
research surrounding cold stress such as
57:32
ice baths or cryotherapy especially when
57:35
used in conjunction with working out
57:36
whereas the sauna seems to be just fine
57:38
and maybe even beneficial to do
57:40
immediately after exercise cold water
57:42
immersion and possibly other modalities
57:44
of cold exposure are a bit more nuanced
57:46
in the context of strength training
57:47
specifically studies have shown mixed
57:49
results when paired with strength
57:50
training for example one
57:52
2015 setting the Journal of physiology
57:54
showed that a 10-minute Coldwater
57:56
immersion immediately falling heavy leg
57:58
training dramatically decreased
58:00
hypertrophy by almost two-thirds a
58:02
10-week follow-up the active coal
58:04
treatment group also had a reduction in
58:05
muscle strength and showed smaller
58:07
increases in type 2 muscle fibers which
58:09
are required for very short duration
58:10
high intensity bursts of power and all
58:13
of this coincided with a reduction in
58:15
biomarkers that are usually associated
58:16
with hypertrophy including the
58:18
activation of satellite cells
58:20
that’s pretty alarming if you think
58:21
about it but maybe it shouldn’t be too
58:23
surprising let’s unpack this anti
58:25
hypertrophy effect of cold a little bit
58:27
one of the reasons ice baths became
58:29
popular in professional sports for
58:30
example is because cold exposure blunts
58:32
inflammation and specifically it’s been
58:34
shown to dramatically decrease the
58:36
production of what are known as the e2
58:37
series prostaglandins which are one of
58:39
the factors that have specifically been
58:41
shown to induce the synthesis of igf-1
58:43
by macrophages that growth factor
58:45
mentioned earlier because it’s important
58:46
for hypertrophy in addition to this cold
58:49
exposure also causes vasoconstriction
58:50
which may acutely prevent immune cells
58:53
from migrating to places like muscle
58:55
tissue knowing how to produce
58:56
inflammation when needed is good but
58:59
only if we account for the various
59:00
downstream effects that this may have
59:01
this is not the only study although it’s
59:04
the best one that has shown that
59:05
Coldwater immersion done immediately
59:07
after strength training may blunt some
59:08
hypertrophy there are others but again
59:10
all of those studies use cold exposure
59:12
sometime immediately after strength
59:14
training so that leaves us with a few
59:16
open questions but the most important
59:17
one is this would we still have seen the
59:19
blunted or reduced hypertrophy effects
59:21
if cold water immersion was done at
59:23
literally any point other than
59:25
immediately after strength training I
59:27
don’t think that based on the current
59:28
literature we can state this with a
59:30
hundred percent certainty at this stage
59:31
but if we take into the account this
59:33
potentially inflammatory mediated
59:35
anabolic window that seems to peak
59:37
especially in the first hour post
59:39
exercise that it might help to explain
59:41
some of the mixed results we see
59:42
surrounding the use of cold stress with
59:44
various forms of strength training
59:45
specifically one 2013 study from the
59:48
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and
59:50
science sports showed the exact opposite
59:53
effect this study showed that whole body
59:55
cryotherapy for a couple of minutes down
59:57
one hour after squat Johnson leg curls
59:59
was actually associated with performance
60:01
enhancements which included improvements
60:03
in power at the start of the squat jump
60:05
and
60:05
jump workout and improved pain measures
60:07
up to 72 hours after the cold treatment
60:10
this isn’t the only study showing an
60:12
enhancement performance from cold either
60:14
we see an it study published in PLoS ONE
60:15
in 2011 that elite runners that engaged
60:18
in whole body cryotherapy one hour 24
60:21
hours or 48 hours after doing some Hill
60:23
sprinting ultimately had a 20% increase
60:26
in speed and power up to two days later
60:28
what’s interesting about the cold is
60:31
that it may also be conducive to
60:32
enhancing endurance related activities
60:34
in particular like fad whereby cold can
60:37
increase the number of mitochondria and
60:38
white adipose tissue in order to trans
60:40
differentiate into brown fat a form of
60:42
fat that is metabolically active
60:43
protective against obesity and naturally
60:45
declines with age muscle also
60:47
experiences an increase in mitochondria
60:49
as a consequence of cold exposure these
60:51
mitochondria are the energy producing
60:53
machinery of our muscle cells the
60:54
density or number of them on a per cell
60:57
basis affects our aerobic capacity
60:59
mitochondria are what give us the
61:00
ability to use oxygen in order to
61:02
produce cellular energy and if we have
61:03
more of them it can be said we may be
61:05
more adapted to aerobic activity okay
61:07
all of that said to sort of get to the
61:09
point to summarize my thoughts on sauna
61:11
and cold water immersion or cryotherapy
61:12
in the context of exercise I think that
61:15
sauna use after exercise seems to be a
61:17
good time to do it generally speaking we
61:19
need more research but cryotherapy or
61:21
cold water immersion may be better to
61:22
hold out on until at least an hour after
61:25
training and finally the effects of and
61:28
the appropriateness of cold related
61:29
activities on performance may for a few
61:32
different reasons be very dependent on
61:33
the actual activity we’re actively
61:35
training for alright on to the next
61:38
question
61:38
Kevin Noonan thick asks what are your
61:41
thoughts on nootropic cognitive
61:42
enhancing supplements and do you take
61:44
any yourself
61:45
for example choline lion’s mane mushroom
61:47
etc I do take some things that might
61:49
qualify as nootropics I am however very
61:52
conscious in what I choose to experiment
61:53
with at least over the long term my
61:55
biggest concern comes down to one simple
61:57
fact when we introduce outside compounds
62:00
that to directly perturb complex
62:02
biological systems we opened up the
62:04
possibility of triggering feedback
62:05
systems that can then result in
62:07
unintended consequences such as receptor
62:10
down regulation what do I mean by that
62:11
for example let’s say we take a
62:13
pharmacological drug that inhibits
62:15
transporters that reuptake and
62:16
metabolized neurotransmitters
62:19
causes these neurotransmitters to then
62:20
stay around the synapse for a longer
62:22
period of time exerting more biological
62:23
effects this might be perceived as a
62:25
good thing
62:26
but the trade-off is that this cause of
62:28
the receptors that bind this various
62:30
neurotransmitters which is how they
62:32
actually exert their biological effect
62:34
to decrease in number this is what we
62:36
call down regulation so what happens
62:38
when you do not take that same drug for
62:40
a few days your baseline level has
62:41
changed so that in the absence of those
62:43
drugs that inhibit reuptake your
62:45
neurotransmitters will not by themselves
62:47
exert the same effect that they might
62:48
have had before your pharmacological
62:50
intervention due to the changes in
62:52
receptor density or the number of
62:53
receptors we have for the
62:54
neurotransmitter to interact with this
62:56
is one reason why I prefer to instead
62:58
focus primarily in the realm of
62:59
nutrition since it usually works a
63:01
little bit more indirectly by providing
63:03
compounds that are found in and needed
63:05
by the body and in the context of this
63:07
conversation the brain additionally when
63:09
compounds are identified in food such as
63:11
Zeno hormetic compounds we have a better
63:13
chance of achieving benefit without
63:14
deleterious effects because the fact
63:16
that we’ve likely evolved alongside the
63:18
presence of that compound if the
63:20
compound or compounds don’t have that
63:22
same history it takes a little bit more
63:24
scrutiny before we can be sure that
63:26
there isn’t some sort of significant
63:27
side effects we just haven’t taken the
63:29
time to observe yet maybe we won’t even
63:31
know about it for years for this reason
63:33
I tend to stay away from compounds that
63:35
are inhibitors of enzymes in the brain
63:36
which I know are ubiquitously found in
63:38
many nootropic stacks even though they
63:40
likely work in a short-term we don’t
63:43
have any good evidence of what if any
63:45
long-term effects that may occur with
63:46
that said there are some nootropics that
63:48
I have tried choline is one of them :
63:50
can be either used to make acetylcholine
63:52
acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that
63:54
connects neurons together or faust
63:56
chattel choline or methyl groups in
63:57
humans choline supplements increased
63:59
choline plasma levels within one hour
64:01
after ingestion and with brain
64:03
concentrations peaking around two hours
64:05
until at least up to three hours after
64:06
ingestion choline effects on the
64:08
cholinergic peripheral system Peaks
64:10
between 1 and 2 hours after ingestion
64:12
cooling itself without forming
64:14
acetylcholine
64:14
acts on a subtype of nicotinic receptors
64:16
called alpha 7 nicotinic receptor that
64:19
is involved in long-term memory
64:20
acetylcholine also acts on all the
64:22
nicotinic receptors : does not cause
64:25
desensitization of this receptor like
64:27
other agonists do like nicotine for
64:29
example in
64:30
act supplementing with : increases this
64:33
receptor subtypes certain
64:35
neurodegenerative disorders like
64:36
Alzheimer’s disease are linked to
64:37
decrease conceale choline so there has
64:39
been a lot of interest in investigating
64:40
whether certain choline supplements and
64:42
other compounds that affect the
64:44
cholinergic system can improve cognition
64:45
of memory and people with cognitive
64:47
decline and dementia and Alzheimer’s
64:49
disease for example there are different
64:51
forms of choline supplements but I think
64:52
the : that is complex to phosphatidyl
64:54
choline is the best because it is 12
64:56
times more bioavailable and gets into
64:58
the brain faster there’s a decent body
65:01
of evidence that has looked at the
65:02
effects of various types of cooling and
65:03
brain function l alpha glycerol
65:06
phosphoryl choline were commonly known
65:08
as alpha GPC is a naturally occurring
65:10
form of choline and is thought to be a
65:12
form of colon that crosses the
65:13
blood-brain barrier quickly I came
65:15
across this compound when doing a
65:16
literature review of various
65:17
phospholipids and their role in
65:18
Alzheimer’s disease the study that put
65:20
this on the map was an old study
65:22
published in 2003 that demonstrated
65:24
1,200 milligrams a day split up over 3
65:26
daily doses was able to enhance
65:28
cognitive performance and slow cognitive
65:30
decline in Alzheimer’s patients the
65:32
problem is this study was done in Mexico
65:33
City 13 years ago since then another
65:36
study in 2011 attempted to repeat this
65:38
but in addition to alpha GPC about 10
65:41
other compounds were given it improved
65:43
cognitive function but it’s impossible
65:44
to pinpoint this effect specifically to
65:46
alpha GPC finally there is yet another
65:48
interesting study that showed that alpha
65:50
GPC along with other natural compounds
65:52
reduce reaction times and prevented
65:54
mental exhaustion after intense exercise
65:56
an effect that is likely due to the
65:58
replenishment of choline that is
66:00
actually temporarily reduced in the
66:01
brain as a consequence of endurance
66:03
exercise such as long runs
66:05
I have personally tried alpha GPC before
66:07
at a dose of around 600 milligrams a day
66:09
an amount that is half the dose that was
66:11
given to the demented patients in Mexico
66:13
City and I noticed that it did seem to
66:15
improve my focus and attention you
66:17
should always leave a little room for a
66:19
possibility that there may be a placebo
66:21
effect but since it’s my anecdote a
66:23
smaller dose of 300 milligrams didn’t
66:26
really seem to have much of an effect on
66:27
me
66:28
in general I do not take alpha GPC every
66:30
day I take it on rare occasions when I’m
66:32
doing a lot of writing or if there’s
66:33
some sort of event that I’m speaking at
66:35
there is another popular form of choline
66:37
called CDP choline which is an
66:39
intermediate produce during the
66:40
generation of phosphatidylcholine from
66:42
choline there are a couple of human
66:44
studies
66:44
looking at the effects of CDP choline in
66:46
cognitive function of healthy young or
66:48
middle-aged adults usually in the range
66:50
of around thousand milligrams a day the
66:52
only benefits were seen in young adults
66:54
that had poor processing speed and
66:56
verbal memory test at baseline strangely
66:59
those individuals that performed well at
67:01
baseline actually had impaired
67:03
performance after supplementation which
67:05
may have to do with genetic variants in
67:06
the receptor density or something which
67:09
just sort of goes to show you how
67:10
complicated neurobiology is and how even
67:13
seemingly straightforward relationships
67:15
can turn out to be not so
67:16
straightforward
67:17
I have personally tried CDP coaling and
67:19
never really notice any enhancing effect
67:21
like I seem to with alpha GPC the other
67:23
nootropic that I have tried a new semi
67:25
frequently is Yamaguchi taka extract
67:27
which is also more commonly known as
67:28
lion’s mane the main active compound in
67:31
lion’s mane is harissa nones which is
67:32
found in the fruit body of the mushroom
67:34
this compound is capable of activating
67:36
nerve growth factor nerve growth factor
67:38
is essential for the growth of new
67:39
neurons and survival of existing neurons
67:41
nerve growth factor acts on the
67:43
cholinergic neurons in the central
67:44
nervous system what got me interested in
67:46
lion’s mane as a nootropic was a
67:48
Japanese study which was a
67:49
double-blinded placebo-controlled trial
67:51
where elderly men were with cognitive
67:53
decline were given one gram doses of 96%
67:56
Yamaguchi taka dried powder three times
67:58
a day for 16 weeks for a total of 3
68:00
grams a day those individuals given the
68:03
Lions Mane’s extract but not Lucy Bo had
68:05
a significant improvement in cognitive
68:07
function at weeks 8 12 and 16 of the
68:09
trial but the cognitive effects were off
68:11
for weeks after discontinuing the
68:13
treatment suggesting that a continuous
68:15
intake was necessary to maintain the
68:17
effect at least in cognitively impaired
68:19
older adults lately I do use lion’s mane
68:22
extract pretty regularly from 4 sig
68:23
Matic they come in packets and each
68:25
packet contains around 1.5 grams of
68:28
lion’s mane extract from the fruit body
68:29
only which would contain harissa notes I
68:31
have no affiliation with them they send
68:34
me some free packets a couple of years
68:35
ago and I liked them so I continued to
68:37
buy them when I use them which only
68:39
again happens to be during periods of
68:41
intense writing or creative work I
68:42
actually use two packets a dose that is
68:45
around 3 grams of lion’s mane extract
68:46
and the same dose used in the clinical
68:48
study I mentioned a moment ago out of
68:50
Japan no discussion of new topics would
68:52
be complete if I didn’t at least briefly
68:54
mention to hobby horses of mine vitamin
68:56
D and omega-3 these
68:58
BECs of both of these are pretty
68:59
far-reaching and extend far far beyond
69:01
the realms of just cognition but even if
69:03
one were only concerned with just
69:05
cognition they would still both have
69:06
special relevance first let’s talk
69:09
vitamin D this one is near and dear to
69:11
my heart since it was my in silikal work
69:13
that actually identified that vitamin D
69:14
affects serotonin production which I
69:16
believe has very far far-reaching
69:18
implications not just for adults trying
69:20
to stay healthy and live optimally but
69:23
also for neurodevelopmental disorders as
69:25
well where impaired serotonin production
69:27
may be particularly important for early
69:29
brain development when the fetus relies
69:30
on the mother as its source for vitamin
69:32
D a whopping nearly seventy percent of
69:35
people in United States can be
69:36
classified as vitamin D insufficient and
69:38
that includes pregnant women ok
69:40
returning to the main topic after that
69:41
brief digression vitamin D is something
69:43
that should be periodically monitored by
69:45
a blood test in order to titrate to a
69:47
dose as appropriate
69:48
I personally shoot for forty to sixty
69:50
nanograms four milliliters since there
69:51
have been a few all cause mortality
69:53
studies that seem to indicate that this
69:55
may be a so-called sweet spot because
69:57
vitamin D can be toxic in the high upper
70:00
ranges doing too much can also be
70:02
problematic it’s an absolute fact that
70:04
what may work for one person especially
70:05
in terms of dose may not for another
70:07
because of the individual variation
70:09
involved and can affect how deficient
70:11
you are including genetic polymorphisms
70:13
wait age the latitude at which you live
70:15
ethnicity how much time you spend
70:17
outdoors whether or not you wear
70:19
sunscreen and so many other things I
70:21
personally found that the tolerable
70:23
upper intake level recommended by the
70:24
Institute of Medicine of just four
70:26
thousand I use usually taken with a
70:27
vitamin k2 supplement is actually the
70:30
amount that lands me right in the middle
70:31
of that target range that said I’m
70:33
probably not even in the highest risk
70:35
category for vitamin D deficiency next a
70:38
quick mention for omega-3 approximately
70:40
8% of the brain’s weight is actually
70:42
omega-3 the number of studies that
70:44
demonstrate optimizing intake of omega-3
70:46
has some effect on cognition or behavior
70:48
are extremely diverse today we’ve talked
70:50
a little bit about nerve growth factors
70:51
so just by way of example I literally
70:53
ran across an animal study that showed
70:55
that supplemental omega-3 increases
70:57
nerve growth factor which increases the
70:59
enzyme responsible for producing a co
71:01
choline it also increases vascular
71:03
endothelial growth factor and
71:04
brain-derived neurotropic factor and has
71:06
generally been shown to improve
71:07
cognition but I’ll talk a little bit
71:09
more about this in an
71:11
another question getting past all the
71:13
usual suspects on our list of nootropics
71:14
here the other nootropic that I actually
71:16
take frequently is sulforaphane it’s not
71:19
even usually considered a nootropic by
71:20
most people but I think it has potential
71:22
to be considered at least a mild
71:24
nootropics for a variety of reasons one
71:26
of the best reasons to make this
71:28
argument is the fact that sulfur refrain
71:29
crosses the blood-brain barrier at least
71:31
in mice this is the first criteria that
71:33
a substance must meet in order for there
71:35
to be a compelling argument that it’s
71:37
somehow exerts effects on the brain but
71:39
in addition to that it also affects the
71:41
activities of the immune system which is
71:43
now known to affect the brain through a
71:44
series of lymphatic vessels this new
71:46
understanding of the immune system’s
71:48
ability to interact with the brain also
71:50
helps to explain why manipulating levels
71:51
of systemic inflammation has in clinical
71:54
trials been shown to affect feelings of
71:56
depression either inducing depression in
71:58
the presence of an artificial increase
71:59
in activity in the immune system by
72:01
injecting things like interference into
72:03
human trial participants or reducing
72:05
depression caused by this artificial
72:07
increase in inflammation through the ko
72:09
administration of natural
72:10
anti-inflammatories such as like OSA
72:12
pentanoic acid better known as the
72:14
omega-3 fatty acid EPA in addition to
72:17
sulfur in crossing the blood-brain
72:18
barrier in mice the compound has been
72:20
shown in a couple of randomized
72:21
double-blinded placebo-controlled
72:22
studies in humans to have one sort of
72:25
effect or another on brain and behavior
72:27
for example treatment with sulfur fin
72:29
extracted from broccoli sprouts at doses
72:31
ranging from around 9 milligrams to 25
72:33
milligrams which is an amount that might
72:35
be found in around 65 grams of fresh
72:37
broccoli sprouts on the high end was
72:39
able to improve autistic behavior
72:40
checklist scores by 34% and
72:42
significantly improved social
72:44
interaction abnormal behavior and verbal
72:46
communication in young men with autism
72:48
spectrum disorder similarly some
72:50
measurable effects have been shown in a
72:52
small trial of people with schizophrenia
72:53
the fact that sulforaphane is exhibiting
72:56
clear effects on the brain and behavior
72:57
of people such as those with autism
72:59
spectrum disorder he said it might
73:01
continue to show promise in other areas
73:03
of cognition – this is because animal
73:05
studies have really shown a diversity of
73:07
very interesting effects on the brain
73:09
that are really just waiting to be
73:10
replicated in humans for example so fur
73:13
grant has been shown to improve spatial
73:15
working memory and short-term memory in
73:16
mice in the context of conditions that
73:18
can affect memory in a deleterious way
73:20
such as Alzheimer’s disease it has been
73:22
shown to increase in a row outgrow
73:24
which is how damaged neurons and
73:25
synapses repair themselves after damage
73:27
from traumatic brain injury The effect
73:29
of sulfur and on a rodent model of
73:31
Alzheimer’s disease in some respects is
73:32
particularly interesting because if we
73:34
go back to our conversation a little bit
73:36
earlier about the potential calling they
73:38
have for mitigating some of the negative
73:40
effects of this disorder so fur frame
73:42
has also been shown to significantly
73:43
reduce memory impairment that has been
73:46
experimentally induced by a drug that
73:48
works specifically by interfering with
73:50
the effects of acetylcholine in the
73:51
nervous system
73:52
a drug known as scopolamine sulfur
73:54
Korean was in this animal trials which
73:56
I’m referring to able to improve the
73:58
cholinergic system by increasing
74:00
acetylcholine levels decreasing
74:02
acetylcholine esterase activity and
74:04
increasing colon acetyl transferase
74:06
which is the enzyme responsible for
74:08
synthesizing seal choline in the
74:09
hippocampus and frontal cortex this ties
74:12
in nicely with some of our discussion
74:13
earlier about the potential importance
74:15
of choline system in cognition finally
74:17
sulfur frame has been shown to have a
74:19
positive effect on mood and alleviated
74:21
depressive symptoms and anxiety as
74:23
effectively as the an depressant Prozac
74:25
in a mouse model of depression and I
74:27
understand that there is at least one
74:28
trial currently in the beginning stages
74:30
looking to confirm this effect in humans
74:32
as well if you consider that the variety
74:34
of brain and other behavioral effects
74:36
demonstrated already in humans I’m
74:37
optimistically hoping that some of the
74:40
groups out there working on these
74:41
questions will have something good to
74:43
show for it in the near future if you’re
74:45
looking to supplemental for a frame as a
74:46
few options available first of all the
74:49
most confusing thing that is necessary
74:50
to understand when gauging the various
74:52
supplements for usefulness is that
74:53
sulfur frame is made from a precursor
74:55
known as quickl rafen in many
74:57
supplements on the market are actually
74:58
just squiggle raffinate you know this
75:00
because it either says glucoraphanin on
75:02
the bottle or it says so fer a flanger
75:04
Kaasen aid which is actually somewhat
75:06
confusingly just another name for google
75:08
rocman then there are a few supplements
75:10
on the market that is glucoraphanin and
75:12
the enzyme needed to convert it into
75:13
sulfur freeing an enzyme called
75:14
myrosinase one example of this
75:16
combination is a product known as AB
75:18
McCall finally there’s an actual
75:20
stabilizer for a frame this includes a
75:22
French product that hasn’t been
75:23
introduced the u.s. yet known as
75:25
processing these three categories of
75:28
products that I’ve mentioned have very
75:29
very large differences in terms of
75:31
bioavailability around 10% on average
75:34
for google rafen and by itself 40% for
75:37
the glue carafe and and and
75:38
Rossini’s combination and then around
75:39
70% to stabilize sulforaphane
75:41
by the way I have no affiliation with
75:43
any of those supplement brands I just
75:45
mentioned the dosage rain that strikes
75:47
me is particularly interesting because
75:48
they have shown up often in clinical
75:50
trials range between 30 to 60 milligrams
75:52
of sulfur in a day these doses however
75:55
actually make most of the supplements
75:57
out there somewhat costly in my opinion
75:58
the good news is that many studies seem
76:00
to be showing promise even at a lower
76:02
dose and if you’re doing an end of one
76:04
experiment it may be useful to be able
76:06
to get a reliable product like the ones
76:07
I just mentioned that said this cost
76:09
factor has been a big reason for why
76:11
I’ve simply taken up growing broccoli
76:13
sprouts at home which is extremely
76:15
inexpensive the main challenge being
76:17
keeping a clean environment with little
76:18
possibility of contamination from
76:20
pathogenic bacteria which can definitely
76:22
happen
76:23
some estimates land fresh broccoli
76:24
sprouts at a concentration of about 1
76:26
gram fresh weight to about 0.45
76:29
milligrams of sulfur frame but it
76:31
depends on seed quality and genetic
76:32
background the age of the sprouts how
76:34
you consume the sprouts whether you
76:36
froze them and threw them immediately
76:38
into a blender which is what I tend to
76:39
do intends to increase the amount of
76:41
sulfur a frame derived or if you instead
76:43
just chew them up the good old-fashioned
76:45
way the drawback to using sprouts is
76:47
that dosing them becomes tricky the fact
76:49
of the matter is is that I found my own
76:51
personal digestion is probably a more
76:53
reliable source of feedback than trying
76:54
to work out the dosage math that’s kind
76:57
of embarrassing ly imprecise I have to
76:59
admit but it just comes down to the fact
77:00
that there’s a tremendous number of
77:02
variables that can influence how much
77:04
sulforaphane in a given dose of broccoli
77:05
sprouts and on top of that what an
77:07
appropriate amount of sulfur referring
77:09
to even supplement is I have been known
77:11
to consume up to four ounces of broccoli
77:13
sprouts a few times a week and I will
77:14
likely continue for the foreseeable
77:16
future that said there are concerns that
77:18
Isis IO signings like sulfur refrain may
77:20
reduce iodine uptake by the thyroid
77:22
gland while right now I don’t think the
77:24
evidence is especially strong that this
77:26
is cause for great concern unless a
77:27
person is iodine deficient which is an
77:29
uncommon deficiency it may be prudent to
77:32
exercise some degree of caution some of
77:35
the effects of these compounds present
77:36
in cruciferous vegetables and broccoli
77:38
sprouts in particular are persistent for
77:40
several days so you don’t necessarily
77:41
need to take an extreme approach in
77:43
order to reap some benefit again run it
77:46
by your doctor etc etc okay on to the
77:48
next question which is somewhat related
77:50
jazz theory
77:52
is one able to cold-pressed use broccoli
77:54
sprouts and still receive high amounts
77:56
of sulfur refrain from ingesting it this
77:57
way to answer your question yes you
78:00
should be able to call press broccoli
78:01
sprouts and make a juice the myrosinase
78:03
enzyme which again is needed to activate
78:05
sulfur vein begins to get activated once
78:08
you cold press the sprouts because by
78:10
cold pressing you are breaking open
78:11
plant cell walls and causing the mixing
78:14
of glucoraphanin in the plant with the
78:16
myrosinase enzyme which is stored away
78:18
and specialized vacuoles this mixing
78:21
then allow suffering to form ultimately
78:23
you would not be getting the same
78:25
dietary fiber which is why I prefer to
78:27
blend things rather than juice them but
78:28
the sulfur frame would be concentrated
78:30
and since it may be less aversive it
78:32
seems like an interesting option next
78:34
question is from William McGrath besides
78:37
a low-carb diet which reduces
78:38
inflammation what is the most effective
78:41
non-pharmaceutical pain reliever for
78:43
arthritis sport injury sufferers ok
78:46
Williams question here is an interesting
78:47
one the reason for that is because of
78:49
the fact that many NSAIDs as in
78:51
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
78:53
which are often used for mild pain
78:55
relief are actually not especially safe
78:57
to take on a daily basis this is even
79:00
more true of people that tend to take
79:01
them in larger than reccommend doses and
79:03
is why the FDA recently strengthened
79:05
their warning that non-steroidal
79:07
anti-inflammatory drugs again known as
79:09
NSAIDs with the exception to aspirin
79:11
significantly increase the risk of heart
79:13
attack or stroke even with short-term
79:15
use with these NSAIDs including
79:17
ibuprofen that causes increased risk
79:19
have in common is that they all inhibit
79:21
cox-2 an enzyme involved in inflammation
79:24
and pain there are a few fundamental
79:26
mechanisms that increase the risk of
79:28
heart attack and stroke first NSAIDs
79:30
that inhibit cox-2 inhibit the
79:32
production of a molecule called
79:33
prostacyclin
79:34
which is produced by Cox 2 and relaxes
79:36
blood vessels and sort of unglued
79:38
platelets second they inhibit the
79:40
production of nitric oxide which is also
79:42
regulated by clocks 2 to some degree and
79:44
needed for proper vascular function
79:46
finally one more mechanism by which
79:48
chronic NSAIDs may increase heart attack
79:50
risk is through the disruption of
79:52
mitochondrial function in heart cells
79:53
knowing these risks sort of motivated me
79:56
to put avoiding the use of NSAIDs such
79:57
as ibuprofen Aleve and naproxen just to
80:00
name a few at a generally a higher
80:02
priority than it may have been
80:03
previously for me on
80:04
level as an alternative to the use of
80:06
NSAIDs however I found that curcumin is
80:08
actually very helpful curcumin is sort
80:11
of an interesting compound it exhibits a
80:12
pretty diverse array of potentially
80:14
beneficial properties but as a
80:16
xenobiotic that the body actively makes
80:18
an effort to get rid of its activity
80:20
could be limited unless care is taken to
80:22
try to make it more bioavailable there’s
80:24
a few different formulations that
80:26
attempt to do that but the one that I
80:27
found most interesting is a formulation
80:29
known as Mareva which has been shown to
80:31
exhibit certain pain relieving
80:32
properties Meriva a form which is
80:34
available from a few well-known brand
80:37
consists of a phospholipid complex with
80:39
20% curcumin dispersed throughout the
80:41
phospholipid this helps to get the
80:43
curcumin tasks of stomach lining and
80:44
from being cleared by enzymes in the
80:46
liver to rapidly a few clinical trials
80:49
have looked into the effects of Moorea
80:50
on pain and inflammation for example
80:52
runners that were given one gram of
80:54
remover twice a day found that reduced
80:56
delayed onset muscle soreness by about
80:58
twofold and caused a 60% decrease in
81:01
markers of muscle damage and
81:02
inflammation specifically aisle eight
81:04
and c-reactive protein after running
81:06
until exhaustion downhill there have
81:08
also been a couple of other clinical
81:09
studies published looking at the
81:10
efficacy of one gram of Maria bad day in
81:13
reducing symptoms of osteoarthritis and
81:15
increasing mobility after three months
81:17
of treatment people with osteoarthritis
81:18
and joint pain had a four-fold increase
81:21
in mobility c-reactive protein decreased
81:23
by 67 percent and they had a rounded 58
81:26
percent reduction arthritis symptoms
81:28
including pain there was a similar study
81:30
that included a longer follow-up which
81:32
was eight months and found similar
81:33
increases in mobility and reductions in
81:35
inflammation and pain what’s interesting
81:37
is that Mareva has also been compared
81:39
directly to common pain relievers in
81:41
terms of ability to give pain relief in
81:43
a small clinical study which found that
81:44
people taking two grams of Moorea a day
81:47
experienced the pain relief equivalent
81:49
to one gram of acetaminophen or Tylenol
81:51
an amount by the way which has been
81:53
associated with liver damage in
81:54
conjunction with long-term use another
81:56
study also found that 2 grams a day of
81:58
Mareva for six weeks with equivalent to
82:00
around 800 milligrams a day of ibuprofen
82:02
for pain relief the study found that the
82:05
analgesic effect of curcumin lasted for
82:07
approximately four hours and a second
82:09
dose administered around 6 to 12 hours
82:11
after the first dose was necessary for
82:13
controlling pain on the whole curcumin
82:15
is a also a surprisingly safe compound
82:18
one study out of Japan published in 2011
82:20
the Journal of cancer chemotherapy and
82:22
pharmacology showed that curcumin into
82:23
the mounts as high as even eight grams
82:25
per day for up to 14 days at a time
82:27
with safe and tolerable these were
82:30
cancer patients and this wasn’t a Mareva
82:32
formulation however seeing how well
82:34
tolerated very high clinical doses are
82:36
generally for occasional pain relief I
82:38
tend to be pretty liberal with topping a
82:39
few grams of curcumin in the form of
82:41
Arriva throughout the day there’s a few
82:43
popular brands offering Mareva or
82:45
sometimes simply marketed as by the
82:47
Zilla curcumin right now the one I’m
82:49
taking is the product from thorne again
82:51
like every other supplement brand I’ve
82:53
ever mentioned on this podcast no
82:54
affiliation whatsoever since I sort of
82:56
pork or cumin and Maria out there
82:58
specifically as a knife and sait
82:59
alternative I’d need to address the
83:01
grill on the room quite recently a very
83:03
sensational scientific review was making
83:05
the rounds claiming that curcumin
83:07
basically had no health benefits and
83:08
that because of a quirk of an
83:10
investigative method used to look at
83:12
protein protein interactions that may be
83:14
subject to some degree of imprecision
83:16
because of how it can behave in a manner
83:18
that produces background noise all
83:19
curcumin research up until this point
83:21
should be more or less considered null
83:23
and void that was sort of the crux of
83:25
the argument and a handful of
83:26
unsuccessful trials were also cited to
83:28
support in my opinion poorly this
83:30
argument the problem is that the
83:32
specific quirk of the research assay
83:33
being discussed is rendered absolutely
83:36
and completely irrelevant in the context
83:38
of the massive body of clinical curcumin
83:40
research done in humans that has shown
83:42
the compound is exceedingly versatile
83:44
moreover even if we put aside the
83:46
enormous amount of clinical research
83:48
it’s been demonstrated that curcumin
83:50
works in a manner that at the cellular
83:52
level exhibits broad changes in gene
83:54
expression something that cannot be
83:56
dismissed simply because one specific
83:58
assay which by the way does not even
84:00
measure gene expression exhibit some
84:02
degree of artifact if you couldn’t tell
84:04
I’m not a big fan this particular review
84:06
article published and may even feel a
84:08
little bit of desire to sort of heat
84:10
mountains of admonishment on the authors
84:11
that said I will concede that there is a
84:14
need for more double-blinded
84:16
placebo-controlled studies on curcumin
84:18
and specifically the Meriva vitae soma
84:20
complex of curcumin which does
84:22
significantly bypass the bioavailability
84:24
issues associated with the compound
84:26
which is also been the source of some
84:28
criticism I am however very very
84:30
optimistic about
84:31
to research surrounding curcumin in
84:33
general and Mareva in particular finally
84:35
one more thing I should bring up in the
84:36
context of joint health is hydrolyzed
84:38
collagen powder what first sparked my
84:40
interest in this was a study shared with
84:42
me by a colleague that established the
84:43
fact that at least in an animal model
84:45
hydrolyzed collagen supplemented in the
84:47
diet did find its way into the cartilage
84:49
sometimes the nutrition relationships
84:51
don’t tend to be so straightforward as
84:53
it may seem intuitive on the surface
84:54
cholesterol is a great example of this
84:56
we actually create cholesterol and the
84:59
consumption of dietary cholesterol is
85:00
not necessarily strictly a cause of high
85:02
cholesterol as we think of it in the
85:04
case of hydrolyzed collagen powder
85:06
however the relationship does seem to be
85:07
straightforward the study to which I’m
85:09
referring to used radio labeled collagen
85:11
which allowed the scientists that were
85:13
doing the investigation to see what
85:15
happened after the hydrolyzed collagen
85:16
was consumed they saw two things
85:18
happened that the collagen ended up
85:20
being broken down into amino acids but
85:22
more importantly that some of it was
85:24
also absorbed intact and shown to
85:26
accumulate in cartilage long-term which
85:28
is pretty cool so a little bit about
85:30
collagen collagen is an important
85:32
component of tendons ligaments cartilage
85:34
and skin but also an important component
85:36
of gums muscle and the gut about 33% of
85:40
collagen is made from prolene and
85:41
glycine which most dietary protein
85:43
sources are not especially high in
85:45
prolene may also have a special place in
85:47
wound healing as well the first ten days
85:49
after a wound occurs prolene levels at
85:52
the site of the wound are 50% higher
85:53
than plasma which might suggest that
85:56
prolene is actively being transported to
85:57
the site of the wound and probably a
85:59
necessary part of the wound healing
86:01
process as an interesting aside polling
86:03
can also be used by the mitochondria to
86:05
produce energy is converted to glutamate
86:08
and alpha ketoglutarate and used by
86:09
mitochondria to produce energy
86:11
the reason this pathway exists is
86:13
because during conditions when glucose
86:15
levels drop prolene is actually released
86:17
from connective tissue to be used to
86:19
make energy I’ve heard Tim mentioned
86:20
great lakes brand hydrolyzed collagen
86:22
powder which happens to be the same
86:24
brand that I’ve used for the last few
86:26
years it does not have any particularly
86:28
strong taste so it can pretty much be
86:29
added to anything including a beverage
86:31
like tea or coffee or pretty much
86:33
anything else ok next question guys a
86:35
Siana asks what brands can we trust for
86:38
dietary supplement brands how can we
86:40
find trustworthy brands this is a great
86:42
question and an important question
86:44
because the FDA
86:45
not require dietary supplements to be
86:47
tested before they are marketed as a
86:48
result products may contain unlisted
86:51
ingredients and contaminants some
86:52
products have even tested positive for
86:54
prescription drugs not listed on the
86:56
label many supplements do not contain
86:58
what they’re actually supposed to
86:59
contain and instead may be a combination
87:01
of fillers like cloverleaf
87:03
so there’s a few things you can do one
87:05
thing you can do is make sure the
87:07
product is certified by NSF
87:08
international which stands for the
87:10
National sanitary foundation which
87:12
independently tests and certifies
87:14
dietary supplements and nutritional
87:15
products ensures that they do not
87:17
contain undeclared ingredients or
87:19
contaminants to earn NSF dietary
87:22
supplement certification products must
87:24
undergo rigorous testing and inspection
87:26
the standard requires label claim
87:27
testing verification and contaminant
87:29
review and a facility audit you can look
87:31
for products containing the NSF label by
87:33
searching their dietary supplements
87:35
online product database found at info
87:38
NSS org slash certified / dietary I
87:42
usually will just type in the
87:43
manufacturer name for example Nordic
87:45
Naturals or I will type in a specific
87:47
product that I’m looking for like Meriva
87:49
the drawback to relying on this
87:51
particular certification is that their
87:53
database can be pretty restrictive while
87:55
being in the NSF database is a good sign
87:57
not being in it strictly is not a
87:59
deal-breaker so here’s another option
88:01
look for products that are USP certified
88:04
the USP which stands for the United
88:06
States form a copula convention is a
88:07
scientific nonprofit organization that
88:10
sets standards for the quality and
88:11
purity of dietary supplements that are
88:13
manufactured distributed and consumed
88:15
worldwide in the United States the FBI
88:17
relies on standards the USB has
88:19
developed you can just go to their
88:21
website which is a USP org and click
88:23
verified supplements to see a list of
88:25
brands and products within brands that
88:26
the USP verifies in addition to the USP
88:29
and NSF there are independent companies
88:31
that also test supplements and then rank
88:33
those products and provide reports to
88:35
customers sometimes for a cost however I
88:37
found these to be either misleading or
88:39
sometimes coming to conclusions that
88:41
give me pause doing the type of
88:42
validation necessary may require
88:44
technical skills that might be executed
88:46
poorly or sometimes just plain weird
88:48
ranking criteria may be at play for that
88:51
reason I don’t trust these independent
88:52
ranking companies as much but apps and
88:55
other information it may still be better
88:56
than just blindly grabbing something off
88:58
of super
88:58
market shelf onto the next question
89:01
James and Wright asks Rhonda what are
89:03
your core supplements in core foods for
89:05
health or brain and daily weekly health
89:08
routine okay first my perspective on
89:10
food I think it’s helpful to understand
89:12
what I’m about to say because it to a
89:13
great degree informs other opinions I
89:15
may have about different approaches on
89:17
diet food is in a big way a vehicle to
89:20
deliver micronutrients or compounds that
89:21
are beneficial to health but not just
89:23
micronutrients other compounds such as
89:25
polyphenols and others you know hormetic
89:27
compounds as well approximately 22% of
89:30
all the genes that encode for enzymes
89:32
require micronutrients as cofactors
89:34
which means that the machinery doing
89:36
work inside yourself actually needs
89:38
micronutrients to function properly
89:39
these are enzymes that are involved in
89:41
metabolism neurotransmitter production
89:43
repairing damage basically everything
89:46
that you want to be working optimally
89:47
needs more than just energy it needs
89:49
micro nutrients it needs minerals like
89:52
magnesium which we find particularly
89:53
abundant in green leafy vegetables
89:55
because it’s at the center of a
89:56
chlorophyll molecule micronutrients are
89:58
about 30 to 40 essential vitamins
90:00
minerals fatty acids and amino acids
90:02
that we must get from our diet because
90:04
they are essential for life that means
90:06
without them you die recommended daily
90:08
intakes of these vitamins and minerals
90:10
have been set to ensure we get adequate
90:12
amounts of them but we really do not
90:14
know how much of these micronutrients we
90:16
need to stave off aging as best we can
90:18
if the proteins in your body start
90:20
operating more poorly let’s say they
90:22
stop repairing DNA damage quite as well
90:24
or they aren’t cleaning up amyloid beta
90:25
as well or any of the almost infinite
90:28
number of other potentially affected
90:29
processes you might not notice this as a
90:31
disease instead we might just call it
90:33
aging it’s important therefore to keep
90:35
in mind that preventing aging is not the
90:37
goal of the RDA it is to prevent easily
90:40
observable obvious diseases of
90:42
deficiency and figuring out what those
90:44
optimal levels are for this more subtile
90:46
and widespread thing we call aging is a
90:47
bit more challenging adding some
90:49
complication to this is the fact that
90:51
this optimal level is probably not the
90:53
same for everyone perhaps as a function
90:55
of the agricultural practices or
90:57
constraints placed by foods dictated
90:58
partly by the geographic area our
91:00
ancestors resided in there’s a great
91:02
degree of genetic influence and how much
91:04
we absorb metabolize and use
91:06
micronutrients understanding just some
91:08
of these interactions between genetic
91:10
polymorphisms in food is an area
91:12
a city known as nutrigenomics it is
91:14
fascinated Lee complex and there’s a
91:16
great deal of opportunity for
91:17
understandings in this area to improve
91:19
the human condition as an extension of
91:21
this fact I think the specifics of diet
91:23
will eventually be better understood to
91:25
not be a one size fits all that said I
91:28
found some things that have worked for
91:29
me personally and some of them are
91:31
probably still relatively generalizable
91:33
in love as to be useful for others here
91:36
they are I know most people are focused
91:37
on macronutrients that makes sense in
91:39
certain contexts so long as it isn’t the
91:41
complete and utter exclusion of all else
91:43
instead
91:44
I just mainly follow a rule of thumb
91:45
that I should eliminate refined
91:47
carbohydrates in particular and refined
91:49
sugar especially and then I try to eat
91:51
with a special attention to nutrient
91:53
density I often enjoy wedging and
91:55
smoothie and sometimes as a partial meal
91:57
substitute that it’s particularly
91:58
focused on cramming and some extra
92:00
servings of some fruits and vegetables I
92:02
consider this to be a pretty important
92:03
lifestyle hack that can sort of just be
92:05
thrown on top of whatever else you’re
92:06
doing and it will help recalibrate a lot
92:09
of important health parameters in a very
92:10
useful way as for actual meals I always
92:13
eat breakfast and as mentioned earlier I
92:14
practiced I’m restricted eating’s that
92:16
all of my meals are consumed earlier in
92:18
the day and within a sensible time
92:19
window while some degree of diversity is
92:21
ideal for breakfast I often do rotate
92:23
between a few reliable meals first when
92:26
the main meals that I eat for breakfast
92:27
are scrambled eggs usually topped with
92:29
tomatillo salsa which helps make the
92:31
eggs less boring sauteed kale and garlic
92:33
topped with olive oil salt and mustard
92:35
powder and a grapefruit on the side I
92:37
scrambled my eggs and sauteed my kale
92:39
and avocado oil because it is high in
92:40
monounsaturated fat and low in
92:42
polyunsaturated fat I tend to stay away
92:44
from cooking oils that are high in
92:46
polyunsaturated fat because it’s so
92:47
easily oxidized it can be very harmful
92:49
consuming oxidized fat the avocado oil
92:53
also has a very high smoke point so it
92:54
can withstand some heat the reason why i
92:57
saute the kale is very practical it’s
92:58
easier to eat I add mustard powder to
93:01
the kale as well as other cruciferous
93:02
vegetables but it may cook with other
93:04
meals to facilitate the conversion of
93:06
precursors into isothiocyanates like the
93:08
sulfur refrain from broccoli one of the
93:10
main reasons I eat eggs is that eggs
93:12
provide me with choline we already
93:14
talked about how cooling affects the
93:15
acetylcholine levels but it also serves
93:18
as a methylation source and thus affects
93:20
global epigenetics which is a way of
93:22
changing the activation or deactivation
93:24
of various genes
93:25
when extremely common genetic
93:26
polymorphism is in a gene that encodes
93:28
for an enzyme that catalyzes the
93:30
synthesis of phosphate or coaling and
93:32
mescaline postmenopausal women in
93:34
particular with this polymorphism need
93:36
to increase their dietary intake of
93:37
choline eggs happen to be a great source
93:40
of choline I spread some tomatillo sauce
93:42
on top of my eggs because I like it for
93:44
most but it helps that’s also high in
93:46
tomato diene which has been shown to
93:48
boost muscle mass in mice by reducing
93:50
the activity of a gene called a TF for
93:52
known for inhibiting muscle protein
93:53
synthesis in addition to the sulfur
93:55
refrain and micronutrients another
93:57
reason why I like kale law is because it
93:59
is one of the vegetables that is highest
94:01
in lutein and zeaxanthin – carotenoids
94:03
that most people associate with eye
94:05
health because they accumulate in the
94:07
rods and cones of the eye and protect
94:09
them from singlet oxygen which is
94:10
generated from blue light and can be
94:12
very damaging to the eye but recently
94:14
there have been a fair amount of studies
94:16
published showing that these carotenoids
94:18
accumulate in large quantities in the
94:20
brain I mean what are they doing in the
94:22
brain there is no singlet oxygen from
94:24
light exposure in the brain plasma and
94:26
brain levels of lutein turned out to be
94:28
associated with a higher volume of gray
94:30
matter in the brain and improved
94:32
crystallized intelligence in the elderly
94:34
which is the ability to use the skills
94:36
and knowledge that one has acquired over
94:37
a lifetime a double blinded randomized
94:40
control trial showed that lutein and
94:42
zeaxanthin supplementation including
94:44
eight milligrams of lutein and 26
94:46
milligrams of the is anthon improved
94:48
neural processing speed time in young
94:50
individuals decreased processing speed
94:53
is a major hallmark of cognitive decline
94:55
lutein and zeaxanthin have been shown to
94:57
improve memory recall while using less
94:58
brain power in older individuals
95:00
something that’s known as neural
95:02
efficiency an aging brain has to use
95:04
more and more energy to maintain normal
95:06
brain functions and so neural efficiency
95:09
is said to decline the icing on the cake
95:11
is that eating eggs with the salad
95:13
increases the absorption of carotenoids
95:15
like lutein and zeaxanthin which are
95:17
found in dark green leafy vegetables
95:18
particularly in kale by up to fourfold
95:21
which is one reason why I like to have a
95:24
side of eggs with my kale the grapefruit
95:26
provides me with furu lacasa a potent
95:28
molecule inhibits a pro-inflammatory
95:29
cytokine tina’s alpha and e2 series
95:32
prostaglandins also inflammatory
95:34
freulich acid has also been shown to be
95:36
anti-carcinogenic the
95:37
grapefruit is also a source of noir
95:39
engine which has a variety of very
95:40
interesting properties another breakfast
95:42
that I haves and not in very cereal with
95:44
hydrolyzed collagen powder and coconut
95:46
milk my cereal also contains array of
95:48
chopped nuts including walnuts pecans
95:50
and macadamia nuts the Nets provided me
95:52
with a host of micro nutrients including
95:54
magnesium calcium zinc and a modest
95:56
amount of protein and the omega-3 fatty
95:57
acid ala which is not meant to be a
96:00
substitute for the marine omega-3s along
96:02
with the nuts I often toss in some
96:04
blueberries for taro sylveon which is a
96:05
plant compound present in blueberries
96:07
that is chemically related to
96:09
resveratrol except it’s about four times
96:11
more bioavailable than resveratrol test
96:13
tube and rodent studies also suggest
96:15
that pterostilbene is more potent than
96:17
resveratrol when it comes to improving
96:19
brain function warding off various types
96:21
of cancer and preventing heart disease
96:22
the blueberries are also very high in
96:24
antecedents which evidence suggests can
96:26
lower DNA damage DNA damage has been
96:29
shown to cause cancer and lead to
96:30
depletion and stem field polls so it
96:32
also plays a important role in the aging
96:34
process as well I also like to add some
96:36
pomegranate into the cereal one of the
96:38
compounds in pomegranate is transformed
96:40
by gut microbes into a molecule called
96:42
Yura with an A which causes my tofu G a
96:44
process important for the renewal of
96:46
mitochondria I mentioned in an earlier
96:47
question your listen a has shown some
96:50
pretty spectacular things in research on
96:52
other organisms including improving
96:54
muscle function and endurance by up to
96:56
42 percent in mice and increasing
96:58
lifespan by more than 45 percent in
97:00
worms finally as the finishing touch the
97:02
breakfast cereal I often throw in some
97:04
flax seeds for more of the omega-3 ala
97:06
and fiber some unsweetened coconut milk
97:09
which contains some medium chain
97:10
triglycerides some raw cacao nibs which
97:13
have a plethora of polyphenols including
97:15
EGCG which activate many antioxidant
97:17
genes and have been shown to kill cancer
97:19
cells occasionally some almond butter
97:21
for some protein and sort of to make it
97:23
delicious
97:23
hydrolyzed collagen powder which
97:25
provides me with prolene as I mentioned
97:27
earlier is important for wound healing
97:28
and also has glycine which is an
97:30
important inhibitory neurotransmitter
97:32
one reason I use coconut milk as opposed
97:34
to regular milk or dairy milk is because
97:37
dairy milk contains Salaberry proteins
97:39
which bind to antigens and polyphenols
97:41
and limits their bioavailability
97:43
sometimes I’ll also throw in the cereal
97:45
concoction some yogurt and possibly a
97:47
packet of the probiotic VSL number three
97:49
which contains 450
97:51
billion probiotic cells per serving okay
97:54
let’s talk lunch this is where the
97:55
smoothie often comes in as a base it can
97:58
often contain kala frozen berries and
98:00
avocado hydrolyzed collagen powder and
98:02
water then a number of variations on top
98:04
of these I have a couple of popular
98:06
smoothie recipes that are floating
98:07
around on the Internet and a person can
98:09
find them by searching Rhonda Patrick’s
98:10
smoothie as a breakfast or lunch I
98:12
occasionally have an avocado tops with
98:14
fresh lemon juice in wild alaskan salmon
98:16
roe possibly accompanied by a side of
98:18
sauerkraut this is another variation I
98:20
sometimes do avocados are really high in
98:23
potassium and provide all the various
98:24
forms of vitamin E in other words both
98:27
tocopherols and tocotrienols something
98:29
is good to get a balance of via diet
98:31
instead of only one form as from sub
98:33
supplements the Alba kado is also a
98:36
great source of monounsaturated fat
98:37
salmon roe caviar is a very good source
98:40
of omega-3 fatty acids approximately 438
98:43
milligrams of EPA and 514 milligrams of
98:46
DHA per ounce I particularly like the
98:49
source of omega-3 because the fats are
98:51
in phospholipid form which has greater
98:52
bioavailability to be transported into
98:54
the brain via the MF s d2 a transporter
98:58
this is a form that is best taken up by
99:00
the brain including the developing brain
99:01
it also has a good amount of astaxanthin
99:04
which protects the omega-3s from
99:05
oxidation and does the same for neurons
99:07
studies looking at DHA and EPA levels in
99:10
red blood cells have shown a correlation
99:12
between higher omega-3 status and having
99:15
a two centimeter larger brain volume
99:17
getting omega-3 into and keeping it in
99:19
the brain is definitely a brain aging
99:21
priority for me
99:22
the sauerkraut is a good source of
99:24
fermentable fiber also known as
99:25
prebiotics that is fuel for the
99:27
commensal gut bacteria so that they are
99:29
able to produce compounds such as short
99:31
chain fatty acids that feed more
99:33
commensal of gut bacteria and also feed
99:35
epithelial cells which required to make
99:37
the gut barrier these compounds produced
99:39
by the gut bacteria serve as signaling
99:41
molecules to make specific types of
99:43
immune cells an important indirect role
99:46
that fiber also has in the diet that
99:48
helps influence its immune activities
99:49
the sauerkraut itself contains the
99:51
various probiotics as well mostly the
99:54
lactobacillus strains which are
99:55
beneficial lactic acid producing
99:57
bacteria which have recently been
99:59
suggest to possibly play a role in
100:00
cancer prevention for dinner I usually
100:02
have some cooked vegetables like sauteed
100:04
space
100:05
which is very high in folate as are all
100:07
greens folate provides an important
100:09
precursor that makes a DNA nucleotide
100:11
called thymine every time you repair a
100:13
damaged cell or make a new cell on your
100:15
liver muscle brain etc you need to make
100:17
new DNA which means you need folate ful
100:20
it was also very recently shown to
100:22
increase the growth of stem cells which
100:23
is important because stem cell pulls
100:25
depleted with age and are a major cause
100:26
of organ aging and dysfunction bullet
100:29
has also recently been shown a player
100:31
while protecting telomeres the tiny caps
100:33
on the ends of chromosomes that are a
100:34
biomarker for age because they get
100:36
shorter every year a recent study showed
100:38
that mothers with the highest folate
100:40
levels had newborns with telomeres 10%
100:42
longer and every 10 nanograms per
100:44
milliliter increase in serum folate
100:46
levels newborns had a 5.8 percent
100:48
increase in telomere length which
100:50
actually suggests that maternal
100:52
nutrition may actually play a role in
100:53
determining the length of telomeres that
100:55
we have to start with sometimes instead
100:58
I’ll have some collard greens bok choy
101:00
broccoli brussel sprouts parsnips of
101:02
course since all of these are
101:03
cruciferous vegetables I usually have
101:05
them with mustard powder sprinkled on
101:07
top since that provides an additional
101:09
source of myrosinase cruciferous
101:11
vegetables in general are among my
101:13
favorite types of vegetables to eat
101:14
because they contain isothiocyanates
101:16
associative studies have shown that the
101:18
top 20% of consumers of cruciferous
101:21
vegetables have a 22% reduction in all
101:23
cause mortality or instead I’ll have a
101:26
big salad full of lots of different
101:28
greens which provide me with a
101:29
cornucopia of micronutrients including
101:31
folate magnesium calcium vitamin k1
101:34
lutein zeaxanthin and soulful queneau
101:36
votes which is a prebiotic that feeds
101:38
beneficial bacteria and gut and is found
101:40
in green vegetables
101:42
by the way salmon has a very low mercury
101:44
content with only 2 micrograms per 4
101:47
ounces cooked EPA as I mentioned earlier
101:49
in another question is a powerful
101:51
anti-inflammatory fatty acid that has
101:53
been shown to lower brain inflammation
101:55
as I mentioned earlier also DHA is a
101:58
critical component of all cell membranes
102:00
that makes up 30% of the fatty acids in
102:02
the brain or about 8% of the total
102:04
weight omega-3 fatty acids have recently
102:07
been shown to positively change gene
102:08
expression in several brain regions and
102:10
also generally shown to stave off brain
102:13
aging but also important is just not
102:15
dying people with the highest omega-3
102:18
fatty acid in
102:18
have been associated with having a 9%
102:21
reduced risk of all-cause mortality and
102:23
for each 1% increment in in omega-3
102:26
fatty acids in their blood
102:27
there was an associated 20% decrease in
102:30
risk for all cause mortality another
102:32
protein that I rotate for dinner is
102:33
chicken legs from pasture-raised chicken
102:35
which I like because in addition to the
102:37
protein I also get some cartilage which
102:39
is high in collagen protein glycine
102:41
which is interesting for reasons I
102:42
already discussed earlier sometimes
102:44
that’s our the chicken bones and some
102:45
water with some spices and vegetables to
102:47
make chicken bone soup which gives me
102:48
all the same goodies I talked about with
102:50
hydrolyzed collagen powder chicken is
102:52
also very high in selenium which is a
102:54
cofactor for all glutathione related
102:56
enzymes and it’s needed for them to work
102:58
it also has a modest amount of zinc
103:00
copper and iron finally I also sometimes
103:03
have a grass-fed fillet steak a few
103:05
times per month which is a good source
103:06
of vitamin b12 iron and zinc
103:08
approximately 16% of all menstruating
103:11
women are actually iron deficient for
103:13
the vegetarians out there it has been
103:15
recommended to take in about twice the
103:16
RDA for iron since iron which is bound
103:19
to phytate in plant sources is about two
103: