Sulforaphane and Its Effects on Cancer, Mortality, Aging, Brain and Behavior, Heart Disease & More

 

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00:03
dr. Matta Patrick here today is a big
00:06
day we’re going to be talking about some
00:08
pretty important stuff I’m very excited
00:10
we’re going to be talking about
00:11
cruciferous vegetables as a group in
00:13
other words we’re going to be talking
00:14
about broccoli brussel sprouts
00:16
cauliflower cabbage collard greens bok
00:18
choy packed oi watercress land cress
00:21
radish daikon wasabi yes wasabi
00:24
it’s a cruciferous vegetable who knew
00:26
we’re also going to be talking about
00:28
broccoli sprouts so much about broccoli
00:31
sprouts and more importantly sulfur vein
00:33
we’re going to talk about household fur
00:35
fan is the most potent naturally
00:37
occurring dietary activator of the
00:39
genetic pathway and rf2 which regulates
00:41
over 200 different genes many genes
00:44
which are antioxidant anti-inflammatory
00:46
and genes that are involved in
00:48
activating and potentially harmful
00:50
compounds that we may be exposed to on a
00:52
daily basis we’re going to be talking
00:53
about the cancer preventive effects of
00:55
so far or fame its effects on
00:57
cardiovascular disease and on the brain
00:59
we’re going to be talking about its
01:00
effects on excreting carcinogens
01:02
bioavailability and dose and we’re going
01:04
to talk about how I’m able to sustain my
01:06
forty to sixty milligram of sulforaphane
01:08
a day by sprouting and so much more
01:11
let’s start with the basics and by
01:13
basics I mean staying alive in 2011 a
01:17
study was published in the American
01:18
Journal of Clinical Nutrition that
01:19
showed if we took the population and
01:21
divide them up by their vegetable
01:22
consumption those in the top 20% of the
01:25
population eating the most vegetables
01:26
had a 16% reduction in what is known as
01:29
all cause mortality what this means is
01:31
that for that period of time study they
01:33
were 16% less likely to die from all non
01:35
accidental deaths compared to others in
01:37
their age group regardless of many other
01:39
health factors like exercise hey that’s
01:41
pretty good right but if instead of just
01:45
looking at vegetable consumption we look
01:47
at the top 20% of cruciferous vegetable
01:50
consumers the effect on all cause
01:52
mortality is even more substantial the
01:54
top 20% of consumers of cruciferous
01:56
vegetables reduce their all-cause
01:58
mortality by 22 percent
02:00
well that alone is actually almost
02:02
enough to make me start a broccoli farm
02:04
there’s been a lot of research on the
02:06
profound associations between
02:07
cruciferous vegetable consumption and
02:09
risk of cancer for example one study
02:12
found that men that ate between three to
02:14
five servings of cruciferous vegetables
02:16
a week had
02:17
40% decrease in prostate cancer risk
02:19
compared to men that ate less than one
02:21
serving per week another study found
02:23
that men who ate two or more half cup
02:26
servings of broccoli per week had a 44%
02:29
lower incidence of bladder cancer
02:31
compared to men who ate less than one
02:33
serving each week smokers who consumed
02:36
at least four and a half servings of raw
02:38
cruciferous vegetables a month had a 55%
02:41
reduction in lung cancer risk compared
02:43
with those who consumed less than two
02:44
and a half servings per month multiple
02:47
studies have shown that women who have
02:48
consumed Pacific vegetables at least
02:51
once a week had between a 17% or as much
02:54
as a 50% decrease in breast cancer risk
02:57
for those consuming it every day the
03:00
variation between these studies likely
03:02
has to do with the preparation of the
03:03
cruciferous vegetables and whether they
03:05
were fresh or frozen all of which
03:07
actually affect the bioavailability of
03:09
the active compounds which we’ll talk
03:11
about in a minute but what if you
03:13
already had cancer people with bladder
03:15
cancer that had just four servings of
03:18
raw broccoli per month had a 57 percent
03:20
reduction in bladder cancer mortality
03:22
and a 43 percent reduction in all cause
03:25
mortality compared to those that just
03:27
had one serving per month something is
03:29
obviously going on here these are some
03:31
pretty powerful associations but before
03:33
we can begin to establish causality we
03:35
must establish a plausible mechanism our
03:38
most likely candidate isothiocyanates
03:40
isothiocyanates are formed from
03:42
compounds known as clue constantly it’s
03:44
by an enzyme called Myra sanae’s which
03:46
is activated when the cruciferous plant
03:48
tissue is crushed or chopped or chewed
03:51
but is inactivated under conditions of
03:53
prolong heat such as sustained boiling
03:56
one particular isothiocyanate sulfur
03:59
fain stands out from all the rest
04:00
because of its potency and because of
04:02
the sheer volume of scientific scrutiny
04:04
it’s been subjected to remember a minute
04:07
ago when I said isothiocyanates are
04:08
formed from glucosinolates while surfer
04:11
faint is no exception
04:12
the glucosinolate that sulfur Fein is
04:14
formed from is known as gluco raffinate
04:17
or it’s more often simply referred to as
04:19
sulfur if an glucosinolate the single
04:22
best source of glucoraphanin and the
04:23
sulfur refrain are likely broccoli
04:25
sprouts which contain up to a hundred
04:28
times more glucose
04:29
then they’re mature counterpart broccoli
04:32
moreover sprouting is something that is
04:34
extremely inexpensive and can be done at
04:37
home there are several different
04:38
mechanisms by which
04:40
isothiocyanates particularly sulfur
04:42
ofing reduce cancer risk and kill cancer
04:44
cells and these occur through multiple
04:47
different pathways including
04:48
deactivation of a family of enzymes
04:50
known as phase one biotransformation
04:52
enzymes which are responsible for
04:55
converting Pro carcinogens into active
04:57
carcinogens this is one way in which
05:00
sulforaphane
05:00
can prevent the formation of DNA addicts
05:04
which is a type of DNA damage that has
05:06
been shown to lead to cancer which
05:08
occurs after exposure to particular
05:10
types of carcinogens tobacco smoke is
05:12
loaded with carcinogens that form DNA
05:15
addicts which is why it’s really nasty
05:17
stuff that increases the risk of several
05:18
different types of cancer including lung
05:20
and bladder cancer it also may explain
05:23
why just a few extra servings of
05:25
cruciferous vegetables a month may lower
05:28
the risk of lung cancer by 55% like we
05:31
just discussed a while ago but what
05:33
about the study on bladder cancer here –
05:35
we’ve got pretty good cause to believe
05:37
that it’s the isothiocyanates in a study
05:39
where rats were given a chemical
05:41
compound that causes bladder cancer
05:42
almost 96 percent of those animals went
05:45
on to develop large tumors by comparison
05:47
only 38% of the animals that were given
05:50
a very high dose of isothiocyanates at
05:52
the same time went on to develop cancer
05:55
and those that did develop cancer the
05:57
tumors were much smaller in size many
05:59
other animal studies have also
06:00
mechanistically shown that
06:02
isothiocyanates reduced cancer incidence
06:04
when challenged with a tumour initiator
06:06
and what about the study on prostate
06:08
cancer yet probably the isothiocyanates
06:10
– there have been a couple of clinical
06:12
trials both involving prostate cancer
06:14
investigating the effects of the active
06:16
compound toll for fame from broccoli
06:19
sprouts on cancer treatment men with
06:21
prostate cancer that were given 60
06:23
milligrams of sulforaphane per day in a
06:25
mount in about 140 grams of fresh
06:28
broccoli sprouts resulted in the slowing
06:31
of the doubling rate of a cancer
06:32
biomarker known as prostate specific
06:34
antigen or PSA by 86% compared to
06:38
placebo first of all think about that
06:40
for a second slowing the doubling rate
06:42
by which a
06:43
tumor markers increased by 86 percent
06:45
that’s pretty gigantic the robust
06:48
effects of sulforaphane
06:49
appeared to be dose dependent in another
06:51
study 35 milligrams of sulfur refrain
06:54
was used instead of 60 milligrams and
06:56
while it theoretically still slowed the
06:58
growth of prostate cancer it only
07:00
increased the average PSA doubling time
07:02
by 57% which while impressive isn’t
07:06
quite as jaw-dropping as the 86% from
07:08
the previous study and breast cancer
07:11
again interesting things going back to
07:13
the sulfur refrain in this case
07:15
bioaccumulation of the isothiocyanate in
07:18
2007 a pilot study found that after
07:20
receiving broccoli sprout extract
07:22
containing about 37 milligrams of sulfur
07:24
a vein or the amount you might get from
07:26
consuming about 85 grams of fresh
07:28
broccoli sprouts the accumulation of
07:31
sulfur refrain was detected in actual
07:33
human breast tissue around 1.45 pica
07:36
mole per milligram for the right breast
07:38
and 2 Pico mole per milligram for the
07:41
left don’t bother looking up what a Pico
07:44
is it’s extremely small this is however
07:46
interesting in the sense that we’re
07:47
seeing the molecule itself actually
07:50
making its way to breast
07:51
additionally breast tissue also
07:53
displayed the increased levels of a gene
07:55
called NQ o1 this gene makes an enzyme
07:59
that has many protective functions
08:01
including detoxification of certain
08:03
compounds preventing them from damaging
08:05
cells and even more interestingly
08:07
protecting a very important tumor
08:09
suppressor gene called p53 from being
08:11
degraded all of this is happening within
08:13
one hour after consuming brothy sprout
08:16
extract p53 is itself so important to
08:19
cancer biology that over 50% of all
08:22
adult cancers have a mutated or broken
08:26
p53 gene keeping our p53 working well is
08:30
very important we’ve also seen a bit
08:35
more directly that in my sulfur freeing
08:37
is able to inhibit the growth of breast
08:39
cancer stem cells look I know I’m trying
08:41
to blow your freaking mind here I’m
08:42
trying to suck you into my world and get
08:44
you interested in isothiocyanates but
08:47
this stuff isn’t cutting-edge I’m not
08:48
the first person to rant and rave about
08:50
the cruciferous vegetable family in fact
08:53
if we rewind a couple of thousand years
08:56
the ancient Roman statesman Cato the
08:58
Elder had this to say about a prominent
09:01
member of the cruciferous family that
09:03
cabbage can banish and cure all from
09:06
crapulous from excess wine consumption
09:08
to serious diseases like cancer
09:11
crappyland now there’s a totally fun and
09:14
legitimate word to throw around at
09:16
parties okay we talked about how
09:18
isothiocyanates can prevent cancer by
09:20
deactivating a family of enzymes known
09:22
as phase one biotransformation enzymes
09:25
but what if in addition to deactivating
09:28
carcinogens
09:28
we just got better at getting rid of
09:30
them I’m talking excretion removing them
09:33
from the body this relies on a whole
09:35
other family of enzymes for which
09:37
isothiocyanates are known to activate
09:39
called Phase two detoxification enzymes
09:42
this effect is mediated via the nrf2
09:46
pathway for which sulforaphane is the
09:48
most potent naturally occurring inducer
09:50
of enter of two is a very important
09:53
pathway because it literally controls
09:55
hundreds of genes by a short sequence of
09:57
DNA that’s present within a gene known
10:00
as an antioxidant response element nrf2
10:03
will bind to this short sequence of DNA
10:05
and it will either activate or repress
10:07
transcription of the gene phase two
10:10
detoxification enzymes like glutathione
10:12
as transferase are important because
10:14
they’re able to deactivate Pro
10:16
carcinogenic agents and transform them
10:19
into water-soluble conjugates which are
10:22
usually less reactive and are able to be
10:24
excreted in urine and bile
10:26
additionally they lower DNA damage
10:29
because they also lower that the
10:32
inflammation and reactive oxygen species
10:33
burden so it’s a good thing that an
10:36
increase in glutathione s transfer is is
10:38
exactly what we see when people start
10:40
bumping up their cruciferous vegetable
10:41
consumption in one study where
10:43
participants were asked to eat 300 grams
10:46
of Brussels sprouts per day which is one
10:49
of the cruciferous vegetables higher in
10:51
isothiocyanate precursors increased
10:53
glutathione as transferase circulating
10:55
in their blood plasma by about 1.4 fold
10:58
while overall oxidative DNA damage went
11:01
down by about 28% drops and DNA damage
11:04
are a very good thing since these are
11:06
ultimately what initiate cancer and are
11:09
mental to the process of aging itself
11:11
but when it comes to showing off the
11:14
ability of sulfur refrain to help
11:15
trigger systems that boost the excretion
11:17
of carcinogens there’s really one study
11:20
that stands out this study demonstrated
11:22
that sulfur refrain and it’s precursor
11:24
glucoraphanin can actually significantly
11:28
increase the excretion of benzene
11:30
participants that were given a daily
11:32
broccoli sprout beverage containing
11:34
around two hundred and sixty two point
11:36
five milligrams of glucagon and about
11:39
seven point one milligrams of sulfur
11:41
ofing which is about probably an
11:44
effective dose of something like 135
11:46
grams of fresh broccoli sprouts per day
11:49
increase the rate of excretion of
11:51
benzene by 61% beginning on the first
11:54
day of consuming the drink and
11:56
continuing throughout the entire 12 week
11:59
period of the trial just so you know
12:01
benzene is a carcinogen that’s been
12:03
shown to cause cancer in humans and in
12:05
animals particularly leukemia the major
12:09
source of benzene is from automobile
12:11
exhaust and air pollution but also from
12:13
cigarette smoke even secondhand the
12:16
major source of source of benzene for
12:18
non-smokers is from air pollution
12:20
whereas smokers are mostly exposed to
12:22
benzene from cigarette smoke in fact in
12:25
the u.s. cigarette smokers are exposed
12:28
to around 10 times more benzene than
12:30
non-smokers or around two milligrams a
12:32
day compared to only two hundred
12:34
micrograms a day in non-smokers this
12:36
starts to make a pretty interesting case
12:38
for smokers right so here’s what we’ve
12:40
got so far
12:40
smokers that he a lot of cruciferous
12:42
vegetables have a decreased risk of lung
12:45
cancer smoking loads us up with a
12:47
carcinogen called benzene and drinking a
12:50
supercharged broccoli sprout drink
12:52
increases our excretion of benzene but
12:55
even if you’re not a smoker which I
12:56
really hope you’re not there are plenty
12:58
of other sources that we can be exposed
13:00
to benzene from air pollution is another
13:03
place we get it
13:04
that’s because air pollution in the
13:05
United States primarily comes from
13:07
automobile exhaust which is a source of
13:09
benzine high-dose benzene exposure from
13:11
air pollution has been shown to increase
13:13
oxidative DNA damage in a dose-dependent
13:15
manner in people while even low-dose
13:18
exposure to benzene from air exposure
13:20
and gasoline exposure has been shown to
13:22
epigenetically chain
13:23
genes that are involved in suppressing
13:24
leukemia if we wish to concern ourselves
13:27
with air pollution however we should
13:28
look to a study published in 2008 on the
13:31
use of a broccoli sprout homogenate this
13:34
study found that broccoli sprouts when
13:35
administered as a Majin ate had a direct
13:38
effect on increasing the expression of
13:40
Phase two detoxification enzymes in the
13:42
upper airway in other words right where
13:45
it counts the doses they gave two
13:47
individuals ranged from 25 grams of
13:49
broccoli sprout homogenate all the way
13:51
up to 200 grams with a clear dose
13:54
response relationship where the largest
13:56
dose had the most potent effect strongly
13:59
increasing the production of various
14:01
glutathione related enzymes such as
14:02
glutathione as transferases
14:04
heme oxygenase 1 and NQ o 1 which is an
14:08
enzyme we talked about earlier when we
14:10
discussed breast cancer benzene isn’t
14:12
the only airborne carcinogen the anti
14:14
benzene brothy sprout drink worked some
14:16
magic on over the 12-week trial
14:19
excretion of the carcinogen acrolein
14:21
rapidly increased by 23% acrolein is
14:24
found in most of the major sources
14:26
already mentioned for benzene including
14:28
air pollution but it differs in that it
14:30
can also be formed when carbohydrates
14:32
proteins and fats are heated another
14:35
study found that consumption of a
14:37
broccoli sprout beverage containing 27
14:39
milligrams of sulfur refrain led to a
14:41
50% increase in excretion of acrolein
14:44
croton aldehyde ethylene oxide and
14:46
benzene finally yet another study showed
14:49
that a tobacco specific lung carcinogen
14:51
called nnk can be detoxified through the
14:55
action of an ISO thiocyanate that is
14:57
found in watercress in other words
14:59
different isothiocyanate in different
15:01
cruciferous vegetable but again an
15:04
effect on carcinogen excretion in this
15:07
study fifty seven grams of watercress
15:09
was given to smokers to eat with each
15:11
meal for three days while they continued
15:13
to smoke those dirty Rascals this led to
15:17
a 35% increase in excretion for
15:20
biomarkers indicating the inactivation
15:22
of the carcinogen and NK the bottom line
15:26
is that consumption of cruciferous
15:27
vegetables including watercress
15:29
but perhaps especially broccoli sprouts
15:32
since they are so rich in sulfur Fame is
15:34
a powerful way to do
15:36
to bait and excrete harmful compounds
15:38
that we are exposed to on a daily basis
15:40
but even more so if you’re a smoker well
15:43
some of this carcinogen excretion stuff
15:45
is somewhat new the general anti-cancer
15:48
properties of glucosinolates and their
15:50
metabolites isothiocyanates are pretty
15:52
well established which is one reason why
15:54
many studies looking into the effects of
15:56
cruciferous vegetables specifically look
15:58
at cancer incidence
15:59
what’s interesting however is the effect
16:01
cruciferous vegetables have on
16:03
cardiovascular risk factors
16:04
remember that study I mentioned earlier
16:06
that showed a 22% reduction in all cause
16:09
mortality for the highest quintile of
16:11
cruciferous vegetable consumption it
16:13
turns out the reduced risk of death was
16:16
mostly associated with reduction and
16:18
death from cardiovascular disease which
16:20
is still the number one killer in the
16:21
United States which may be surprising
16:24
since we spent so much time talking
16:25
about the number of cancer studies
16:27
floating around out there in fact
16:29
multiple studies have found that people
16:31
that eat a higher quantity of
16:33
cruciferous vegetables have a lower risk
16:35
of cardiovascular disease heart attack
16:37
and stroke compared to those with a
16:39
lower intake but better still is
16:41
actually measuring the strength of this
16:43
effect
16:44
one study in people with type 2 diabetes
16:46
showed that it’s possible to actually
16:48
drive real changes in biomarkers that
16:50
are predictive of future heart disease
16:52
supplementing with 10 grams of broccoli
16:55
sprout powder per day which comes out to
16:57
about 40 milligrams of sulfur refrain
16:59
and is probably comparable to around 100
17:01
grams fresh weight for four weeks lower
17:05
their serum triglyceride by eighteen
17:07
point seven percent and lowered oxidized
17:09
LDL ratio by 13.5 percent overall this
17:12
reduced trial participants atherogenic
17:14
index by just over 50% which is a
17:17
measure of cardiovascular disease that
17:18
incorporates a wide variety of factors
17:20
not to mention they also had a nearly
17:23
20% drop in fasting blood sugar which is
17:26
a pretty darn good thing if you’re a
17:28
type 2 diabetic other studies using
17:30
fresh sprouts but with a similar
17:32
effective dose of sulfur refrain have
17:33
also demonstrated anti atherogenic
17:35
effects there are likely multiple
17:38
mechanisms by which sulfur refrain and
17:40
cruciferous vegetables in general
17:41
positively affect cardiovascular health
17:43
one of the most important ones goes back
17:46
to the genetic pathway we mentioned
17:47
earlier this
17:49
name one responsible for activating
17:50
those phase 2 detoxification enzymes
17:52
which is nrf2 and that is because enter
17:55
up to activates antioxidant genes it
17:57
activates anti inflammatory genes
17:59
deactivates inflammatory genes which all
18:01
affect cardiovascular health
18:03
Sofer frame has been shown in rat
18:05
studies to increase antioxidant activity
18:07
include a thigh own expression and
18:09
endothelial cells that line the blood
18:11
vessels it also relaxes smooth muscle
18:14
cells
18:14
additionally sulfur refrain appears to
18:16
be able to reduce adhesive molecules
18:18
that are part of the atherogenic state
18:20
that drives heart disease such as issa
18:22
lectin which is a cell adhesion molecule
18:25
expressed only in endothelial cells and
18:28
activated by inflammatory cytokines
18:30
studies like these ultimately help give
18:32
us some insights into what might be
18:34
happening at a mechanistic level to
18:36
drive these larger associations at a
18:38
population level that are being seen
18:40
between reductions and heart disease
18:41
risk and consumption of cruciferous
18:43
vegetables we’ve talked about how
18:45
sulforaphane can reduce cancer can
18:47
reduce cardiovascular disease and soon
18:49
we’ll be talking about neurodegenerative
18:51
diseases all of which are diseases of
18:53
age we’ve talked about associative
18:55
studies that have shown reductions in
18:57
all cause mortality for the top 20% of
19:00
cruciferous vegetable consumers but the
19:03
question still remains does sulforaphane
19:06
effect or slow the aging process itself
19:09
one way to answer this question would be
19:12
to see if sulfur rain has a direct
19:13
effect on lifespan
19:15
unfortunately this hasn’t to my
19:17
knowledge been done in animals I’d love
19:20
to see that happen I did however run
19:22
across a bit of a tease a study looking
19:24
at the effect of broccoli extract on a
19:26
type of beetle known as red flower
19:28
beetles that were given a diet
19:30
supplemented with 1% broccoli extract it
19:33
increased their mean lifespan by 15%
19:35
under normal physiological conditions
19:38
and under conditions of higher oxidative
19:40
stress increase their mean lifespan by
19:43
30 percent the lifespan extension from
19:46
the broccoli extract depended on the
19:48
activation of an or of two and the FOXO
19:51
pathway that is homologous to humans Fox
19:54
o3 longevity pathway finding out that
19:56
the aging benefits in these little
19:58
critters are derived from the same nrf2
20:00
genetic pathway
20:01
that is conserved in humans is really
20:04
good news if we’re ever to have any hope
20:06
in replicating this data in a species a
20:08
little more closer to us finding out
20:10
that the Fox of genetic pathway is also
20:12
involved is really just a cherry on top
20:15
the Fox o3 genetic pathway which I’ve
20:17
talked about in multiple podcasts and
20:19
videos is very closely related to human
20:22
longevity for example humans that have a
20:24
gene polymorphism in the Fox oh three
20:27
gene that make it more active are 2.7
20:31
times more likely to live to be a
20:33
centenarian the chances of living to be
20:35
a centenarian however seem to depend a
20:38
lot on keeping inflammation at bay in
20:40
fact it is now believed that suppression
20:43
of inflammation is the single most
20:45
important predictor of successful aging
20:47
and we’re not just talking about
20:49
lifespan either we’re talking about
20:51
capability in terms of performing
20:53
functions of daily life and also
20:55
cognition yes inflammation was an
20:58
important predictor of cognition itself
21:00
and this was shown in populations
21:03
including elderly people all the way up
21:05
through super centenarians which live to
21:08
be a hundred and ten years old and this
21:10
relationship isn’t surprising we know
21:12
that if we take mice for example an
21:14
induced chronic low level activation of
21:17
a master regulator of the
21:18
pro-inflammatory response known as NF
21:21
kappa-b
21:21
it can actually accelerate aging by 30
21:25
percent in mice again suggesting that
21:28
chronic enhancement of pro-inflammatory
21:30
mediators really is not just a bystander
21:34
but an actual driver of Aging so fur
21:39
Fane has been shown in mice to inhibit
21:40
NF kappa-b through the activation of
21:43
nrf2 NF kappa-b activates a multitude of
21:47
inflammatory pathways and induces
21:49
cytokines that regulate the immune
21:50
response one such example is il-6 which
21:54
is often activated downstream of NF
21:57
kappa-b
21:57
higher circulating levels of il-6 are
22:00
associated with increased risk for
22:02
cancers and other age-related diseases
22:04
here we see a benefit in humans healthy
22:08
individuals given 14 grams of
22:10
cruciferous vegetables per kilogram body
22:12
weight daily decrease their circular
22:14
levels of il-6 by 20% another study
22:18
showed that a broccoli sprout powder
22:19
containing approximately 40 milligrams
22:22
of sulfur Fein an amount you might get
22:24
from around hundred grams of fresh
22:26
broccoli sprouts reduced tnf-alpha a
22:29
marker of inflammation by eleven percent
22:31
and lowered c-reactive protein another
22:34
marker of inflammation by 16% in people
22:37
with type 2 diabetes associative studies
22:40
in humans show a similar effect on
22:41
inflammation when comparing the top 20%
22:44
consumers of cruciferous vegetables with
22:46
the bottom 20% they had on average a
22:49
reduction of circulating il-6 by 25% and
22:52
a similar decrease for other important
22:55
inflammatory cytokines like TNF alpha
22:57
which was lowered by 12.6% if we accept
23:00
the premise that sulfur fane derived
23:02
from cruciferous vegetables is driving
23:04
reductions in inflammation and this is
23:06
happening via the nrf2 pathway then we
23:09
have to ask ourselves what is actually
23:11
happening to enter up to itself and what
23:13
does this mean for other processes
23:15
inside the body under normal conditions
23:18
nrf2 is briefly activated every hundred
23:20
and twenty nine minutes
23:21
however when stimulated by sulfur fain
23:24
its activity pattern changes it becomes
23:27
activated every eighty minutes which is
23:29
about a 61% increase this increase in
23:33
nrf2 activity is hugely important
23:35
because it regulates over 200 genes many
23:38
of these genes affect cellular aging
23:41
enter up to protects against cancer
23:43
which is an age-related disease by
23:45
deactivating carcinogens and increasing
23:48
their excretion
23:48
it also deactivates genes involved in
23:51
inflammation and activates antioxidant
23:53
genes both which lower DNA damage which
23:56
can lead to cancer but also slows the
23:58
aging process in general it does this by
24:00
lowering the total amount of damage that
24:01
accumulates within cells damage that
24:04
accumulates within cells can accelerate
24:06
telomere shortening and also causes
24:08
cells including stem cells to become
24:10
senescent and non-functional our immune
24:12
cells including our adaptive immune
24:14
cells are more prone to cellular
24:16
senescence with age called immuno
24:18
senescence and this makes us more
24:21
susceptible to infections as we get
24:22
older the adaptive immune response is
24:25
the second immune strategy that our
24:27
bodies employ and
24:28
in contrast to the innate immune
24:30
response which is less specific it
24:32
functions by using and creating
24:34
immunological memory after initial
24:37
exposure to a pathogen which then makes
24:40
its more its response more targeted and
24:42
specific in subsequent encounters the
24:45
adaptive immune system functionally
24:47
declines with age but mouse studies show
24:50
us something interesting a conservative
24:52
dose of about 1.6 milligrams per day in
24:55
old mice was able to render a regaining
24:58
of some of that lost function in the
25:00
adaptive immune system if we extrapolate
25:02
that to a human equivalent dose it comes
25:04
out to around 20 grams of so farofa in a
25:06
day which is an amount you might expect
25:08
to find in around 43 grams of fresh
25:11
broccoli sprouts since we’re talking
25:13
about aging and I’ve already somewhat
25:15
shamelessly dipped into animal studies
25:17
many times leading up until this point
25:19
I’ll share one more thing with you
25:21
mostly just for fun before we move on to
25:23
another topic for most people aging is
25:26
something that occurs in the mirror
25:28
rather than a cellular phenomenon you
25:30
can’t look in the mirror and see that
25:32
your telomeres are getting shorter or
25:34
see that you’re accumulating more and
25:36
more DNA damage with each passing day
25:38
what you can see however is the
25:40
formation of wrinkles or whether or not
25:43
your hair is starting to fall out most
25:45
people are probably more happy with just
25:48
keeping the hairs on their head rather
25:50
than concerning themselves with DNA
25:52
damage the most common type of hair loss
25:54
that occurs with age is androgenetic
25:57
alopecia and it’s mediated through the
25:59
production of dihydrotestosterone which
26:02
slows the growth phase of a new hair
26:04
follicle and result in decreased
26:06
production of new hair interestingly one
26:09
study shows a pretty strong effect on
26:11
hair regrowth from sulfur refrain
26:13
supplementation in my subjected to
26:15
experimentally induced hair loss the
26:18
effect from the injected sulfur refrain
26:20
was pretty strong somewhere on the order
26:22
of around a 50% increase in hair
26:25
regrowth accompanied by a pretty robust
26:28
decrease in dihydrotestosterone levels
26:31
you guys know I love to talk about the
26:34
brain if I can find a way to tie the
26:36
brain into something I’m talking about
26:38
I’ll do it here to our favorite and mo
26:41
notable isothiocyanates Ophir fame does
26:44
not let us down so fervent crosses the
26:47
blood-brain barrier at least in mice and
26:49
we also know it has very potent effects
26:52
on lowering inflammation inflammation
26:54
itself also has a direct effect on the
26:57
brain
26:58
the nrf2 pathway is the body’s strongest
27:01
defense against oxidative stress in fact
27:04
oxidative stress itself activates this
27:07
pathway perhaps then we should not be
27:09
too surprised to find out that sulphur
27:12
Fane also plays a role in conditions of
27:14
the brain for which oxidative stress is
27:17
known to be part of the etiology of in a
27:19
randomized double-blinded
27:21
placebo-controlled study treatment with
27:23
sulphur faint extracted from broccoli
27:25
sprouts at doses ranging from around 9
27:27
milligrams to 25 milligrams which is an
27:30
amount found in probably around 65 grams
27:33
of fresh broccoli sprouts on the high
27:35
end was able to improve autistic
27:38
behavior checklist scores by 34% and
27:41
significantly improved social
27:42
interaction abnormal behavior and verbal
27:45
communication in young men with autism
27:47
spectrum disorder another trial found
27:50
supplementation with 30 milligrams per
27:52
day of glucose often in other words just
27:54
the precursor to sulfur refrain by
27:56
itself for eight weeks was effective in
27:59
improving certain scores of cognitive
28:01
impairment in a very small group of
28:03
medicated patients with schizophrenia
28:05
it’s worth noting that schizophrenia
28:07
like autism does seem to have an
28:10
oxidative stress component the degree of
28:13
which may even be an indicator for the
28:15
acute severity of symptoms
28:17
let’s talk depression depression is one
28:19
of the most common psychiatric illnesses
28:21
in the world the World Health
28:23
Organization estimates around 350
28:25
million individuals have depression
28:28
according to the NIH around 10 percent
28:31
of American adults are on some form of a
28:34
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor a
28:36
broad category which includes drugs like
28:39
flu exiting or also known as prozac
28:41
mounting evidence suggests that
28:43
nutrition plays a huge role in
28:45
depression more directly by impacting
28:48
neurotransmitter production and function
28:50
which can be modulated by micronutrients
28:52
but also by affecting systemic
28:54
inflammation
28:55
which is now known to play a major role
28:58
in depression how do we know whether
29:00
inflammation can play a causal role in
29:03
depression we know this because healthy
29:05
individuals that are injected with
29:06
either a pro-inflammatory cytokine
29:08
interferon gamma or lipopolysaccharide
29:12
which is a component of bacterial cell
29:14
membranes that elicits an immune
29:16
response begin to experience depressive
29:19
symptoms that can actually be alleviated
29:22
with a polyunsaturated fatty acid i
29:25
cosas pentanoic acid also known as EPA
29:27
which is an omega-3 fatty acid that is
29:30
well known for its anti-inflammatory
29:32
properties the reason these inflammatory
29:35
molecules and cytokines were able to
29:37
have these sorts of effects is because
29:40
they are able to cross over the
29:41
blood-brain barrier and disrupt
29:43
neurotransmitter production and release
29:45
the significance of this inflammation
29:47
linked to depression is reinforced by
29:49
observations that the risk for major
29:51
depression is increased by 44% for each
29:55
standard deviation increase in log
29:58
c-reactive protein which is a common
30:00
measure of systemic inflammation that is
30:03
also used as a measure of cardiovascular
30:05
disease risk elevated levels of the
30:08
pro-inflammatory cytokine il-6
30:10
have also been linked to depression if
30:12
you’ve been paying attention up until
30:14
now then you know where I’m going with
30:15
this already a little while ago we
30:17
talked about inflammation in the context
30:19
of aging but it’s similarly valid here
30:22
if for example sulfur frame can lower
30:25
import inflammatory cytokines such as
30:27
il-6 upwards of 20% in humans on top of
30:32
it being able to cross the blood-brain
30:33
barrier maybe we have a chance of it
30:36
being helpful in depression as well as a
30:39
plausible mechanism for being helpful
30:41
for depression we see promise in animal
30:43
studies mice given lipopolysaccharide to
30:46
induce an inflammatory response
30:48
experience depressive symptoms just like
30:51
humans do however taking these say mice
30:54
in giving them a whopping 1 milligram
30:56
per kilogram of body weight a day of
30:58
sulfur ofing reverses these depressive
31:01
symptoms this paper I’m referring to is
31:03
interesting in part for reasons of what
31:06
it states right in the abstract and that
31:08
is
31:08
that nrf2 may be a good target for novel
31:12
antidepressant drugs but also because
31:15
they’re inducing depression through
31:17
inflammation tricking the immune system
31:20
into thinking it’s under attack however
31:22
isn’t the only way to induce a
31:23
depression phenotype a variety of
31:26
stressors can do that social stress
31:28
messing with the circadian rhythm water
31:30
deprivation in ten different models of
31:33
stress induced depression sulfur Fame
31:35
alleviated depressive symptoms and
31:37
anxiety as well as the antidepressant
31:40
Prozac in mice sulfur free and also
31:43
decreased stress hormones and the
31:45
inflammatory response in response to
31:47
various social stressors indicating that
31:50
the neuro protective effects on
31:51
depression and anxiety may be associated
31:55
with lower inflammation and lower stress
31:57
hormones in this case as well my set of
32:00
repeatedly subjected to social defeat
32:02
causes depression like symptoms
32:04
including avoiding social situations so
32:08
further if rain prevented this avoidance
32:09
behavior when animals were given sulfur
32:11
rain and even more interestingly
32:13
administration of the precursor to
32:15
sulfur fin glucoraphanin during early
32:17
development and adolescence prevented
32:20
the social defeat during adulthood while
32:22
the positive effects of sulfur and on
32:24
depression have only been shown in
32:26
animals this is enticing we already have
32:29
some evidence that sulfur rain can have
32:31
a positive effect on other conditions of
32:33
the brain in humans such as autism we
32:36
also have evidence that sulfur Irrfan
32:38
can lower biomarkers of inflammation
32:40
also in humans and we know that
32:42
inflammation is directly linked to
32:44
depression for the f-4 mentioned reasons
32:47
it seems very plausible that
32:49
sulforaphane may have a similar effect
32:51
on depression and anxiety in humans but
32:54
the best we can hope for is for future
32:56
studies to be done in people to help
32:58
illuminate this for us any discussion of
33:01
the brain and inflammation would not be
33:03
complete without mention of
33:04
neurodegenerative diseases which are
33:06
often considered to be diseases of
33:08
ageing themselves and also traumatic
33:10
brain injury for which chronic
33:12
inflammation plays a major role in later
33:14
outcome
33:15
brain inflammation and reactive oxygen
33:17
species are hallmarks of
33:18
neurodegenerative diseases such as
33:19
Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s and Huntington’s
33:21
disease the inflammation and high
33:24
oxidative stress play a role in causing
33:25
abnormal protein aggregates in the brain
33:28
a common denominator between these
33:30
neurodegenerative diseases injection of
33:33
our favorite nrf2 activator sulforaphane
33:35
has been shown to improve spatial
33:38
working memory and short-term memory in
33:39
mice injected with amyloid beta
33:42
aggregates in order to cause a disease
33:44
similar to Alzheimer’s disease it’s been
33:46
shown to decrease tremors and normalize
33:48
dopamine levels in mice given a chemical
33:50
that induces parkinson’s disease and
33:52
it’s been shown to clear aggregates from
33:54
the brains of mice that were genetically
33:56
engineered to have Huntington’s disease
33:58
as one of the most potent inducers of
34:00
the cellular antioxidant and
34:02
anti-inflammatory network through its
34:04
robust activation of nrf2 it probably
34:07
shouldn’t surprise us that it has been
34:08
shown to prevent the death of neurons
34:09
and improve pathologies associated with
34:12
neurodegenerative diseases in the brains
34:14
of animals I was a little surprised
34:16
however to find that sulfur vein
34:18
activates many heat shock proteins by
34:20
increasing the levels of heat shock
34:23
factor one known as H s f1 which is a
34:25
major regulator of many different heat
34:28
shock proteins the induction of heat
34:30
shock proteins may be an additional
34:32
mechanism the body has against the
34:34
aggregation of proteins which have been
34:36
shown to confer some protection against
34:39
Alzheimer’s disease Parkinson’s disease
34:41
and Huntington’s disease putting aside
34:43
heat shock proteins for a moment so for
34:45
reference activation of enter up to in
34:47
addition to protecting against
34:49
neurodegenerative diseases and delaying
34:51
brain aging in general also has special
34:54
relevance for traumatic brain injury
34:55
because traumatic brain injury also has
34:58
a very important inflammatory and
35:00
oxidative stress components to it there
35:02
have been several studies showing that
35:04
sulforaphane can protect against
35:06
traumatic brain injury or TBI in animals
35:09
for example when administered by
35:11
injection following TBI Sulphur Irvine
35:14
has been demonstrated to attenuate blood
35:16
brain barrier Pullman permeability which
35:18
means the body is better able to control
35:20
what is and is not allowed to enter the
35:23
brain as well as a reduction in cerebral
35:26
edema regardless of how soon after the
35:30
injury the sulphur refrain was given
35:32
additionally enhanced learning and
35:34
working memory with
35:35
improved but only if Stiffler refrain
35:37
was administered within one hour
35:38
post-injury
35:39
he has also been shown that
35:41
administration of sulfur referring 15
35:43
minutes after the onset Asst of ischemia
35:45
which is a dangerous lack of oxygen that
35:48
can occur in the brain as a consequence
35:50
of injuries caused a reduction in
35:52
infarct volume in other words the amount
35:54
of dead tissue three days later so
35:57
fervent increases neuro outgrowth at
35:59
least in cultured neurons through the
36:01
activation of nrf2 neuro outgrowth is
36:04
one of the most important mechanisms by
36:06
which damaged neurons and synapses
36:08
repair themselves after damage from TBI
36:10
nrf2 is also key for growing new neurons
36:13
which is largely regulated by growth
36:15
factors that are able to promote the
36:17
growth of new neurons and promote the
36:19
survival of existing neurons certain
36:21
lifestyle factors can increase or
36:23
decrease these neurotrophic growth
36:25
factors for example obesity and type 2
36:28
diabetes can decrease the production of
36:30
neurotrophins rats with diabetes have
36:34
reduced levels of the neurotropic
36:37
factors brain derived neurotrophic
36:39
factor or BDNF and nerve growth factor
36:42
or ngf but this has been experimentally
36:45
reversed by administration of sulphur
36:48
fame high levels of inflammation
36:50
oxidative stress which are countered by
36:52
nrf2
36:53
are known to negatively affect the
36:55
production of neurotropic factors to
36:57
illustrate the importance of nrf2 in
36:59
brain health – that I’ve had an Arab who
37:02
deleted have a 30% reduction in brain
37:05
derived neurotrophic factor in the
37:06
hippocampus a 30% reduction in the
37:09
growth of new synapses and a 38 percent
37:12
reduction in neuroplasticity in the
37:14
hippocampus neurodegenerative diseases
37:16
are not the only degenerative disease
37:18
that sulphur fame shows some very early
37:20
promise for Duchenne muscular dystrophy
37:22
leads to a progressive loss of muscle
37:25
tissue and eventual premature death
37:27
there is no cure and the only treatment
37:30
that has been proven to delay symptoms
37:32
are corticosteroids in a mouse model of
37:35
muscular dystrophy Sofer frame was shown
37:37
to increase skeletal muscle mass muscle
37:40
force by 30% and running distance by 20%
37:43
interestingly in a separate cell culture
37:46
study sulphur
37:47
Frane was shown to inhibit myostatin in
37:50
muscle satellite cells which is a
37:52
well-known inhibitor of muscle growth
37:54
while the overall relevance of these
37:56
animal studies to these disorders in
37:59
actual humans is still tenuous at best
38:01
here again we can at least be hopeful
38:04
that future research will illuminate
38:06
more for us wow this was a long one
38:09
let’s take a moment to recap and talk
38:11
about some of the things that we talked
38:13
about we started off by talking about
38:15
some of the epidemiological evidence
38:16
showing that increased consumption of
38:18
cruciferous vegetables was associated
38:20
with reductions in all cause mortality
38:22
it was also associated with reductions
38:25
in cancer specific mortality including
38:27
cancer of the prostate bladder long and
38:30
breast we talked about how there is a
38:32
good chance that isothiocyanates a group
38:35
of compounds that notably include sulfur
38:37
fain are likely what’s driving these
38:39
associations we know this from human
38:41
studies where humans that already have
38:43
cancer and then are given sulfur fain it
38:45
lowers biomarkers of cancer progression
38:48
we also know this from animal studies in
38:50
which animals were given a carcinogen
38:52
that causes cancer along with sulfur of
38:55
fame and the sulfur fen prevented the
38:57
cancer from forming we talked about how
38:59
broccoli sprouts are the best source of
39:01
sulfur roofing containing up to a
39:03
hundred times more of the precursor to
39:05
sulfur Irrfan glucoraphanin than mature
39:07
broccoli we also talked about evidence
39:10
about how sulforaphane lowers DNA damage
39:13
by lowering oxidative stress and
39:15
inflammation which are central to cancer
39:17
aging ‘nor general diseases and more we
39:21
talked about how I brought this about
39:22
beverage was able to increase the
39:24
excretion rate of benzene by up to 61%
39:26
people and also how it was shown to
39:29
increase the excretion rate of other
39:30
harmful compounds that were exposed to
39:32
on a daily basis we talked about
39:34
cardiovascular health and how
39:36
consumption of cruciferous vegetables
39:37
lowers heart disease risk we also talked
39:40
about how people that were given sulfur
39:41
frame lowered biomarkers of
39:42
cardiovascular disease risk including
39:44
oxidized LDL and triglycerides and also
39:47
reduced atherogenic index by up to 50%
39:50
we talked about how a beverage derived
39:52
with broccoli sprouts was able to
39:54
improve behavioral scores in people with
39:56
autism and how it can improve cognition
39:58
in a small trial in people with
40:00
schizophrenia
40:01
we also talked about household fur frein
40:03
holds promise in treating a variety of
40:05
other brain disorders including
40:07
depression and neurodegenerative
40:08
diseases based on early animal research
40:10
finally we talked about the role of the
40:13
nrf2 pathway and how sulforaphane
40:14
potently activates it and its relevance
40:17
from everything from excreting
40:19
carcinogens to mitigating inflammation
40:21
and how this is important for slowing
40:23
diseases of aging we talked about so
40:26
much in fact it’s mind-boggling but the
40:29
one thing we didn’t talk about is dose
40:30
if a person wanted to get the benefits
40:33
of sulphur refrain in their diet and
40:35
they choose to get them in their more
40:37
concentrated source namely broccoli
40:39
sprouts
40:40
how many sprouts would one have to eat
40:42
for this I used a conservative estimate
40:44
that each gram of fresh uncooked
40:47
broccoli sprouts yields around 2.4 micro
40:51
moles of sulfur ofing or about 0.4 to 5
40:54
milligrams of sulfur fain using this
40:56
number it might suggest that if a person
40:59
wanted to get 60 milligrams of sulfur a
41:01
frame per day which was shown to reduce
41:03
the doubling rate of a marker for
41:05
prostate cancer by 86% then they would
41:08
probably have to consume around 140
41:10
grams fresh weight of broccoli sprouts
41:12
or they could try to mimic the study
41:14
done in people with type 2 diabetes
41:15
which showed a reduction in
41:17
triglycerides of around eighteen point
41:19
seven percent and a reduction of
41:21
oxidized LDL by around thirteen point
41:23
five percent with a daily dose of an
41:25
extract that was equivalent to around 40
41:27
milligrams of sulfur frame or what you
41:29
might get from about 100 grams of fresh
41:32
broccoli sprouts or maybe our
41:34
hypothetical individual is somewhat more
41:36
concerned with general inflammation in
41:38
which case 40 milligrams of support
41:41
sulfur refrain should promise and yet
41:42
another study when it reduced tnf-alpha
41:45
our marker of inflammation by 11 percent
41:47
and lowered c-reactive protein another
41:50
marker of inflammation by 16 percent the
41:53
point is your guess is as good as mine I
41:55
only have the doses used in some of
41:57
these human studies to go off of as it
41:59
turns out when sprouting at home using
42:02
the mason jar method i found i can yield
42:05
up to around 280 grams fresh weight per
42:09
jar in other words one jar seems to
42:12
yield enough broccoli sprouts to get
42:14
pretty close
42:15
to the 120 milligrams sulforaphane range
42:17
or 60 milligrams each for two people add
42:20
in six jars and rotation like I’m
42:23
currently doing and you’ve got enough to
42:25
do that almost every day for two people
42:27
if you want to let’s take a quick second
42:30
to talk about sources of sulfur rain and
42:32
some factors influencing its formation
42:34
we’ve talked a lot about broccoli
42:36
sprouts but of course sulfur rain and
42:38
other isothiocyanates can be derived
42:40
from other cruciferous vegetables as
42:42
well there are many other cruciferous
42:44
vegetables that contain the precursor to
42:46
sulfur refrain glucoraphanin the levels
42:49
of glucose often vary greatly between
42:51
these different cruciferous plants but
42:53
as a general rule of thumb broccoli
42:55
sprouts topped the list as a source of
42:57
glucoraphanin which is why we talk today
43:00
a lot about the young sprouts of these
43:02
plants only about 20% of glucoraphanin
43:05
however is bioavailable and converted
43:08
into sulfur or fane in the body so as
43:10
you might imagine it’s important that
43:13
your sulfur free source has a lot of
43:15
this precursor to begin with it’s not
43:17
just glucoraphanin that matters when it
43:19
comes to maximizing sulfur fine however
43:21
the work of actually converting this
43:23
precursor into sulfur refrain is done by
43:26
an enzyme called myrosinase this enzyme
43:28
which is released when the plant matter
43:30
is crushed or chewed unfortunately is
43:32
heat sensitive this is where a lot of
43:35
people get into trouble prolonged
43:36
heating and boiling of cruciferous
43:38
vegetables is a great way to ensure that
43:41
your myrosinase is thoroughly
43:43
inactivated even if you lack dietary
43:46
sources of myrosinase most of us have
43:49
some gut bacteria that itself produces
43:52
myrosinase and thus can still manage to
43:54
create some sulfur refrain from raw
43:57
glucoraphanin the ability to do this
44:00
however is widely variable from person
44:03
to person in some people it’s very
44:05
efficient whereas in others it’s
44:07
extremely inefficient this is one reason
44:10
why i’m not a huge fan of the alleged
44:13
sulfur in supplements on the market
44:14
which contain what is known as so far if
44:17
and glucosinolate in other words they
44:19
contain glucoraphanin not so far refrain
44:22
all the while lacking the requisite
44:24
Meyerson is needed to get the job done
44:26
there may be other ways to still
44:28
things with supplementation for example
44:31
simply eating cruciferous vegetables
44:33
that do contain myrosinase along with
44:35
your supplemental glucoraphanin one
44:37
studies showed that there was almost a
44:38
two-fold increase in sulfur fee and
44:40
absorption when broccoli sprouts and
44:42
broccoli sprout powder were consumed
44:44
together plasma and urine metabolites
44:47
were observed earlier and at a much
44:49
higher level than when either was eaten
44:51
alone additionally it’s also been
44:53
suggested that mustard seed may be an
44:55
effective supplemental source of
44:57
myrosinase as well finally aside from
45:00
supplementation we have the question of
45:02
how can we go about maximizing sulfur
45:05
free and production in vegetables
45:07
themselves some sources seem to indicate
45:09
that 3 to 4 minutes of very light
45:12
steaming is the best way to go the
45:14
reason is because a light steam has the
45:17
effect of deactivating a protein known
45:19
as epipheo specifiy protein which
45:22
actually prevents the formation of
45:24
sulfur ofing while still leaving
45:26
Meyerson a is activated if you’re better
45:29
able to control the conditions for which
45:31
you’re cooking a similar effect can be
45:33
achieved by heating your mature broccoli
45:35
to 60 degrees Celsius for just 10
45:37
minutes or your broccoli sprouts which
45:40
are a little bit less heat sensitive to
45:42
around 70 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes
45:44
one study showed that doing this in
45:46
broccoli sprouts increase the production
45:48
of sulfur refrain by around 3.5 fold
45:51
however if you increase the temperature
45:53
much more substantially you end up in
45:55
activating the Meyerson ease enzyme that
45:58
said most of my estimates of the amount
46:01
of broccoli sprouts needed to achieve a
46:03
certain dose of sulfur ofing have been
46:05
based off of raw consumption of broccoli
46:07
sprouts not this blanching treatment as
46:09
a final point we should take a moment to
46:11
talk about the alleged goitrogenic
46:13
activity of isothiocyanates the facts
46:15
are that some studies have indicated
46:17
that isothiocyanates can compete with
46:19
iodine for transport into the thyroid
46:22
gland most evidence indicates that this
46:24
may only be a problem under conditions
46:27
of severe iodine deficiency which is not
46:29
common reinforcing this healthy people
46:32
given an amount of isothiocyanates
46:34
that’s roughly equivalent to the amount
46:36
you might get in about 70 grams of
46:39
broccoli sprouts did not experience
46:41
and any negative effects on their
46:43
thyroid hormones or demonstrate liver
46:46
toxicity it is my opinion that the
46:48
evidence of the usefulness of
46:50
isothiocyanates is too strong to simply
46:53
dismiss them as anti nutrients
46:55
I’m dr. Rhonda Patrick and I’ll catch
46:57
you next time
47:02
thank you so much for watching if you
47:05
enjoyed this episode make sure you click
47:07
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47:19
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you
Isothiocyanates are some of the most important plant compounds you can get in your diet. In this video I make the most comprehensive case for them that has ever been made. Short attention span? Skip to your favorite topic by clicking one of the time points below. Full timeline below the fold… Key sections: 00:01:14 – Cancer and mortality 00:19:04 – Aging 00:26:30 – Brain and behavior 00:38:06 – Final recap 00:40:27 – Dose —— Full timeline: 00:00:34 – Introduction of sulforaphane, a major focus of the video. 00:01:14 – Cruciferous vegetable consumption and reductions in all-cause mortality. 00:02:12 – Prostate cancer risk. 00:02:23 – Bladder cancer risk. 00:02:34 – Lung cancer in smokers risk. 00:02:48 – Breast cancer risk. 00:03:13 – Hypothetical: what if you already have cancer? (interventional) 00:03:35 – Plausible mechanism driving the cancer and mortality associative data. 00:04:38 – Sulforaphane and cancer. 00:05:32 – Animal evidence showing strong effect of broccoli sprout extract on bladder tumor development in rats. 00:06:06 – Effect of direct supplementation of sulforaphane in prostate cancer patients. 00:07:09 – Bioaccumulation of isothiocyanate metabolites in actual breast tissue. 00:08:32 – Inhibition of breast cancer stem cells. 00:08:53 – History lesson: brassicas were established as having health properties even in ancient Rome. 00:09:16 – Sulforaphane’s ability to enhance carcinogen excretion (benzene, acrolein). 00:09:51 – NRF2 as a genetic switch via antioxidant response elements. 00:10:10 – How NRF2 activation enhances carcinogen excretion via glutathione-S-conjugates. 00:10:34 – Brussels sprouts increase glutathione-S-transferase and reduce DNA damage. 00:11:20 – Broccoli sprout drink increases benzene excretion by 61%. 00:13:31 – Broccoli sprout homogenate increases antioxidant enzymes in the upper airway. 00:15:45 – Cruciferous vegetable consumption and heart disease mortality. 00:16:55 – Broccoli sprout powder improves blood lipids and overall heart disease risk in type 2 diabetics. 00:19:04 – Beginning of aging section. 00:19:21 – Sulforaphane-enriched diet enhances lifespan of beetles from 15 to 30% (in certain conditions). 00:20:34 – Importance of low inflammation for longevity. 00:22:05 – Cruciferous vegetables and broccoli sprout powder seem to reduce a wide variety of inflammatory markers in humans. 00:23:40 – Mid-video recap: cancer, aging sections 00:24:14 – Mouse studies suggest sulforaphane might improve adaptive immune function in old age. 00:25:18 – Sulforaphane improved hair growth in a mouse model of balding. Picture at 00:26:10. 00:26:30 – Beginning of brain and behavior section. 00:27:18 – Effect of broccoli sprout extract on autism. 00:27:48 – Effect of glucoraphanin on schizophrenia. 00:28:17 – Start of depression discussion (plausible mechanism and studies). 00:31:21 – Mouse study using 10 different models of stress-induced depression show sulforaphane similarly effective as fluoxetine (prozac). 00:32:00 – Study shows direct ingestion of glucoraphanin in mice is similarly effective at preventing depression from social defeat stress model. 00:33:01 – Beginning of neurodegeneration section. 00:33:30 – Sulforaphane and Alzheimer’s disease. 00:33:44 – Sulforaphane and Parkinson’s disease. 00:33:51 – Sulforaphane and Hungtington’s disease. 00:34:13 – Sulforaphane increases heat shock proteins. 00:34:43 – Beginning of traumatic brain injury section. 00:35:01 – Sulforaphane injected immediately after TBI improves memory (mouse study). 00:35:55 – Sulforaphane and neuronal plasticity. 00:36:32 – Sulforaphane improves learning in model of type II diabetes in mice. 00:37:19 – Sulforaphane and duchenne muscular dystrophy. 00:37:44 – Myostatin inhibition in muscle satellite cells (in vitro). 00:38:06 – Late-video recap: mortality and cancer, DNA damage, oxidative stress and inflammation, benzene excretion, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, effects on the brain (depression, autism, schizophrenia, neurodegeneration), NRF2 pathway. 00:40:27 – Thoughts on figuring out a dose of broccoli sprouts or sulforaphane. 00:41:01 – Anecdotes on sprouting at home. 00:43:14 – On cooking temperatures and sulforaphane activity. 00:43:45 – Gut bacteria conversion of sulforaphane from glucoraphanin. 00:44:24 – Supplements work better when combined with active myrosinase from vegetables. 00:44:56 – Cooking techniques and cruciferous vegetables. 00:46:06 – Isothiocyanates as goitrogens. — Follow FoundMyFitness elsewhere: ▶︎ iTunes Podcast: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/fo… ▶︎ Twitter: http://twitter.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Email newsletter: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/?sendme…

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